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Table 5 First- and second-order term for age from fractional polynomial models with predicted costs of health care utilization as dependent variable, by participant characteristics

From: Determinants of health care costs in the senior elderly: age, comorbidity, impairment, or proximity to death?

Group First term Second term
Men X3 − 657.2 (p < 0.001) X3 × ln(X) − 1421.4 (p < 0.001)
Women X3 − 696.5 (p < 0.001) X3 × ln(X) − 1519.7 (p < 0.001)
Surviving X3 − 669.4 (p < 0.001) X3 × ln(X) − 1451.8 (p < 0.001)
Died in year X−2 − 0.0123 (p < 0.001) X−2 × ln(X) − 0.0270 (p < 0.001)
  Surviving Died Surviving Died
Number of morbidities
 0 X−2 − 0.0126 (p < 0.001) X−2 − 0.0120 (p < 0.001) X−2 × ln(X) − 0.0276 (p < 0.001) X−2 × ln(X) − 0.0266 (p < 0.001)
 1–3 X3 − 670.0 (p < 0.001) X−2 − 0.0121 (p < 0.001) X3 × ln(X) − 1453.2 (p < 0.001) X−2 × ln(X) − 0.0267 (p < 0.001)
 4–6 X3 − 668.0 (p < 0.001) X−2 − 0.0123 (p < 0.001) X3 × ln(X) − 1448.4 (p < 0.001) X−2 × ln(X) − 0.0271 (p < 0.001)
 ≥7 X3 − 660.3 (p < 0.001) Age − 88.90 (p < 0.001) X3 × ln(X) − 1429.0 (p < 0.001)
Number of impairments
 0 X−2 − 0.0133 (p < 0.001) X3 − 706.8 (p < 0.001) X−2 × ln(X) − 0.0287 (p < 0.001) X3 × ln(X) − 1545.7 (p < 0.001)
 1–3 X3 − 662.6 (p < 0.001) X−2 − 0.0124 (p < 0.001) X3 × ln(X) − 1434.8 (p < 0.001) X−2 × ln(X) − 0.0272 (p < 0.001)
 4–6 X3 − 698.9 (p < 0.001) X0.5 − 3.0 (p < 0.001) X3 × ln(X) − 1525.7 (p < 0.001)
 ≥7 X3 − 725.2 (p < 0.001) Age − 91.6 (p < 0.001) X3 × ln(X) − 1592.2 (p < 0.001)
  1. X refers to age/10