The European Journal of Health Economics

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 223–228 | Cite as

The impact of post-procedural complications on reimbursement, length of stay and mechanical ventilation among patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation in Germany

  • Klaus Kaier
  • Holger Reinecke
  • Huseyin Naci
  • Lutz Frankenstein
  • Martin Bode
  • Werner Vach
  • Philip Hehn
  • Andreas Zirlik
  • Manfred Zehender
  • Jochen Reinöhl
Original Paper



The impact of various post-procedural complications after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) on resource use and their consequences in the German reimbursement system has still not been properly quantified.


In a retrospective observational study, we use data from the German DRG statistic on patient characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of all isolated TAVI procedures in 2013 (N = 9147). The impact of post-procedural complications on reimbursement, length of stay and mechanical ventilation was analyzed using both unadjusted and risk-adjusted linear and logistic regression analyses.


A total of 235 (2.57%) strokes, 583 (6.37%) bleeding events, 474 (5.18%) cases of acute kidney injury and 1428 (15.61%) pacemaker implantations were documented. The predicted reimbursement of an uncomplicated TAVI procedure was €33,272, and bleeding events were associated with highest additional reimbursement (€12,839, p < 0.001), extra length of stay (14.58 days, p < 0.001), and increased likelihood of mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h (OR 17.91, p < 0.001). A more moderate complication-related impact on resource use and reimbursement was found for acute kidney injury (additional reimbursement: €5963, p < 0.001; extra length of stay: 7.92 days, p < 0.001; ventilation >48 h: OR 6.93, p < 0.001) as well as for stroke (additional reimbursement: €4125, p < 0.001; extra length of stay: 4.68 days, p < 0.001; ventilation >48 h: OR 5.73, p < 0.001). Pacemaker implantations, in contrast, were associated with comparably small increases in reimbursement (€662, p = 0.006) and length of stay (3.54 days, p = 0.006) and no impaired likelihood of mechanical ventilation more than 48 h (OR 1.22, p = 0.156). Interestingly, these complication-related consequences remain mostly unchanged after baseline risk-adjustment.


Post procedural complications such as bleeding events, acute kidney injuries and strokes are associated with increased resource use and substantial amounts of additional reimbursement in Germany, which has important implications for decision making outside of the usual clinical sphere.


Post-procedural complications TAVR Transcatheter aortic valve replacement Excess costs Reimbursement Resource use 

JEL Classification

C01 I10 

Supplementary material

10198_2017_877_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (36 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 36 kb)
10198_2017_877_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (37 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 36 kb)
10198_2017_877_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (37 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 36 kb)
10198_2017_877_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (37 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (PDF 36 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Cardiology and Angiology IHeart Center Freiburg UniversityFreiburgGermany
  3. 3.Division of Vascular Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular MedicineUniversity Hospital MuensterMuensterGermany
  4. 4.LSE Health, Department of Social PolicyLondon School of Economics and Political ScienceLondonUK
  5. 5.Department of Cardiology, Angiology, PulmonologyUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  6. 6.Faculty of Business Management and Social SciencesOsnabrück University of Applied SciencesOsnabrückGermany

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