The use of relative potential risk as a prioritization tool for household WEEE management in Thailand

Abstract

Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become one of the major global concerns in solid waste management due to its continuously increasing volume and adverse effects on the environment and human health. This study aims to use the relative potential risk as a specific device to prioritize 8 WEEE types in Thailand based on contents and toxicity of toxic metals in printed circuit boards (PCBs), including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, and lead, in terms of potential harm indicator (PHI) and quantity of PCBs. The results indicated that the most significant type of WEEE based on relative potential risk is liquid crystal display television, while the least significant types of WEEE are refrigerator and washing machine. However, PCBs also contain precious metals (gold, silver, and palladium) which are crucial for WEEE recycling economy. Thus, the ratio between precious metals and toxic heavy metal was determined as a simple tool to assess the cost and benefit. According to the results, mobile phone has been the highest economic wealthiest while refrigerator has been the lowest. The findings in this study will be useful as a tool for policy makers to decide the sustainable WEEE management.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. 1.

    UNEP (2007) E-waste Volume I: Inventory Assessment Manual. International Environmental Technology Centre, United Nations Environmental Programme, Osaka/Shiga, Japan

  2. 2.

    Kumar A, Holuszko M, Espinosa DCR (2017) E-waste: AN overview on generation, collection, legislation and recycling practices. Resour Conserv Recycl 122:32–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.01.018

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Perkins DN, Drisse M-NB, Nxele T, Sly PD (2014) E-Waste: a global hazard. Ann Glob Health 80:286–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aogh.2014.10.001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Baldé CP, Forti V, Gray V, Kuehr R, Stegmann P (2017) The Global E-waste Monitor—2017. United Nations University (UNU), International Telecommunication Union (ITU) & International Solid Waste Association (ISWA), Bonn/Geneva/Vienna

  5. 5.

    Ilankoon IMSK, Ghorbani Y, Chong MN, Herath G, Moyo T, Petersen J (2018) E-waste in the international context—A review of trade flows, regulations, hazards, waste management strategies and technologies for value recovery. Waste Manag 82:258–275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2018.10.018

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Khwamsawat K, Borrirukwisitsak S, Tscheikuna J, Khaodhiar S (2019) Evaluation of the effects of citizen behaviors on the volume of WEEE generation in Thailand. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on East Asian Resources Recycling Technology (EARTH 2019), 202–206

  7. 7.

    Kojima M, Yoshida A, Sasaki S (2009) Difficulties in applying extended producer responsibility policies in developing countries: case studies in e-waste recycling in China and Thailand. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 11:263–269. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-009-0240-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    EEI (2007) The study project on “development of estimation method of waste electrical and electronics equipment”. Electrical and Electronic Institute. https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/oda/seisaku/kanmin/chusho_h25/pdfs/3a07-4.pdf. Accessed 20 Dec 2020

  9. 9.

    PCD (2014) Manual of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment. Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Bangkok

  10. 10.

    PCD (2018) Thailand State of Pollution Report 2017. Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Bangkok

  11. 11.

    PCD 2019 Thailand State of Pollution Report 2018 Pollution Control Department Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Bangkok

  12. 12.

    Singh M, Thind PS, John S (2018) Health risk assessment of the workers exposed to the heavy metals in e-waste recycling sites of Chandigarh and Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Chemosphere 203:426–433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.03.138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Withaya-anumas S (2018) E-waste Management in Thailand. TDRI Report 133. https://tdri.or.th/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/wb133.pdf. Accessed 24 May 2020

  14. 14.

    Oguchi M, Murakami S, Sakanakura H, Kida A, Kameya T (2011) A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources. Waste Manag 31:2150–2160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2011.05.009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Tsydenova O, Bengtsson M (2011) Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste Manag 31:45–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2010.08.014

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Grant K, Goldizen FC, Sly PD, Brune M-N, Neira M, van den Berg M, Norman RE (2013) Health consequences of exposure to e-waste: a systematic review. Lancet Glob Health 1:e350-361. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(13)70101-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Dutta T, Kim K-H, Uchimiya M, Kwon EE, Jeon B-H, Deep A, Yun S-T (2016) Global demand for rare earth resource and strategies for green mining. Environ Res 150:182–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.05.052

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Ponghiran W, Khaodhiar S, Borrirukwisitsak S, Charoensaeng A (2019) The use of aqua Regia for gold recovery from RAM in discarded printed circuit boards. In: Proceedings of the 15th international symposium on East Asian resources recycling technology (EARTH 2019), 279–283

  19. 19.

    Gidarakos E, Akcil A (2020) WEEE under the prism of urban mining. Waste Manag 102:950–951. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2019.11.039

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Oguchi M, Sakanakura H, Terazono A (2013) Toxic metals in WEEE: characterization and substance flow analysis in waste treatment processes. Sci Total Environ 463–464:1124–1132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.07.078

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Cesaro A, Belgiorno V, Vaccari M, Jandric A, Chung TD, Dias MI, Hursthouse A, Salhofer S (2018) A device-specific prioritization strategy based on the potential for harm to human health in informal WEEE recycling. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:683–692. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0390-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Kim M, Jang Y-C, Lee S (2013) Application of Delphi-AHP methods to select the priorities of WEEE for recycling in a waste management decision-making tool. J Environ Manage 128:941–948. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.06.049

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Cesaro A, Belgiorno V, Gorrasi G, Viscusi G, Vaccari M, Vinti G, Jandric A, Dias MI, Hursthouse A, Salhofer S (2019) A relative risk assessment of the open burning of WEEE. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:11042–11052. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04282-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Brunner PH, Rechburger H (2017) Handbook of material flow analysis for environmental, resource, and waste engineers, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Andarani P, Goto N (2014) Potential e-waste generated from households in Indonesia using material flow analysis. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 16:306–320. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-013-0191-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Yamane T (1973) Statistics: an introductory analysis, 3rd edn. Harper & Row, New York

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    NSO (2019) The 2019 Household Basic Information Whole Kingdom. National Statistical Office, Thailand. http://www.nso.go.th/sites/2014en/. Accessed 5 June 2019

  28. 28.

    Ikhlayel M (2016) Differences of methods to estimate generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment for developing countries: Jordan as a case study. J Waste Manag 33:714–721. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.117787

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Singh M, Thind PS, John S (2018) An analysis on e-waste generation in Chandigarh: quantification, disposal pattern and future predictions. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 20:1625–1637. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-018-0726-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Laner D, Feketitsch J, Rechberger H, Fellner J (2015) A novel approach to characterize data uncertainty in material flow analysis and its application to plastics flows in Austria. J Ind Ecol 20:1050–1062. https://doi.org/10.1111/jiec.12326

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Bizzo WA, Figueiredo RA, de Andrade VF (2014) Characterization of printed circuit boards for metal and energy recovery after milling and mechanical separation. Materials 7:4555–4566. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7064555

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Julander A, Lundgren L, Skare L, Grandér M, Palm B, Vahter M, Lidén C (2014) Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: an occupational exposure study from Sweden. Environ Int 73:243–251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2014.07.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Zeng X, Xu X, Boezen HM, Huo X (2016) Children with health impairments by heavy metals in an e-waste recycling area. Chemosphere 148:408–415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.10.078

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    US EPA (2020) Regional Screening Levels (RSLs)—Generic Tables (May 2020). United States Environmental Protection Agency. https://www.epa.gov/risk/regional-screening-levels-rsls. Accessed 24 May 2020

  35. 35.

    Baars AJ, Theelen RMC, Janssen PJCM, Hesse JM, van Apeldoorn ME, Meijerink MCM, Verdam L, Zeilmaker MJ (2001) Re-evaluation of human-toxicological maximum permissible risk levels—RIVM report no. 711701025. National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

  36. 36.

    United Nations University (2008) 2008 Review of Directive 2002/96 on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)—Final Report. United Nations University (UNU), Bonn, Germany

  37. 37.

    McCoach H, White C, Laundon C (2014) Final report—techniques for recovering printed circuit boards (PCBs). Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP), Banbury, UK

  38. 38.

    Wongpanit International (2020) Retail price. Wongpanit International Co., Ltd. http://www.wongpanit.com/print_history_price/653. Accessed 17 March 2020

  39. 39.

    Bowcock H (2011) Electronics and e-waste: a guide for management. Metamorphosis Foundation within the Balkan E-waste Management Advocacy Network, Republic of Macedonia

  40. 40.

    European Commission (2020) Waste Electrical & Electronic Equipment (WEEE). European Commission. https://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/weee/index_en.htm. Accessed 29 May 2020

  41. 41.

    Peiró LT, Polverini D, Ardente F, Mathieux F (2020) Advances towards circular economy policies in the EU: the new Ecodesign regulation of enterprise servers. Resour Conserv Recycl 154:104426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.104426

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Singhal D, Tripathy S, Jena SK (2020) Remanufacturing for the circular economy: study and evaluation of critical factors. Resour Conserv Recycl 156:104681. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2020.104681

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the National Research Council of Thailand, Research Program of Industrial Waste Management—Policies and Practices, Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM), Chulalongkorn University, and Faculty of Science and Technology, Songkhla Rajabhat University, Thailand.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Siriporn Borrirukwisitsak.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Borrirukwisitsak, S., Khwamsawat, K. & Leewattananukul, S. The use of relative potential risk as a prioritization tool for household WEEE management in Thailand. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-021-01175-x

Download citation

Keywords

  • WEEE
  • Waste management
  • Risk
  • Thailand