Heavy metal removal from municipal solid waste fly ash through chloride volatilization using poly(vinyl chloride) as chlorinating agent

Abstract

Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Cr were removed from municipal solid waste fly ash through chloride volatilization method using poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as the chlorinating agent. To investigate the effective utilization of PVC, chloride volatilization at 700–900 °C was conducted for 0–120 min under three conditions: elevated heating (~ 40 °C/min), isothermal heating, and isothermal heating with Ca(OH)2 as a HCl trapping agent. PVC was a better chlorinating agent than CaCl2 and removed ~ 100% Pb and Zn and ~ 50% Cu and Mn by isothermal heating at 900 °C for 120 min. Ca(OH)2 reduced Pb removal at 700 °C by ~ 20% and Cu removal at 900 °C by ~ 50%; however, it promoted Zn volatilization by 10–20% at all temperatures. The effects of co-existing elements on the chloride volatilization behaviors of these heavy metals were determined by conducting thermodynamic simulations under equilibrium conditions. The combined experimental and thermodynamic approach suggested that Pb and Zn were mainly volatilized as metal chlorides via reaction with the HCl produced by PVC pyrolysis, whereas Mn was volatilized by both CaCl2 and Na2O. Thus, CaO, CaCO3, MgO, and residual carbon in fly ash could inhibit the chlorination of Pb, Cu, and Cr.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Abbreviations

EDX:

Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

MSW:

Municipal solid waste

PVC:

Polyvinyl chloride

SEM:

Scanning electron microscopy

XRD:

X-ray diffraction

References

  1. 1.

    Hoornweg D, Bhada-Tata P (2012) What a waste: a global review of solid waste management. World Bank, Washington DC

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Verbinnen B, Billen P, Van Caneghem J, Vandecasteele C (2017) Recycling of MSWI bottom ash: a review of chemical barriers, engineering applications and treatment technologies. Waste Biomass Valor 8:1453–1466

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Meer I, Nazir R (2018) Removal techniques for heavy metals from fly ash. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 20:703–722

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Chandler AJ, Eighmy T, Hjelmar O, Kosson D, Sawell S, Vehlow J, Van der Sloot H, Hartlén J (1997) Municipal solid waste incinerator residues. Elsevier, Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Jiang J, Jun W, Xin X, Wei W, Zhou D, Yan Z (2004) Heavy metal stabilization in municipal solid waste incineration flyash using heavy metal chelating agents. J Hazard Mater 113:141–146

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Hiraoka M, Sakai S (1994) The properties of fly ash from municipal waste incineration and its future treatment technologies. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 5:3–17

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Ni G, Zhao P, Jiang Y, Meng Y (2012) Vitrification of MSWI fly ash by thermal plasma melting and fate of heavy metals. Plasma Sci Technol 14:813

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Kido S (2008) Recycling system of Kowa Seiko Co., Ltd. Nihon Enerugi Gakkaishi 87:274–278

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Chan C, Jia CQ, Graydon JW, Kirk DW (1996) The behaviour of selected heavy metals in MSW incineration electrostatic precipitator ash during roasting with chlorination agents. J Hazard Mater 50:1–13

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Chan CC, Kirk DW (1999) Behaviour of metals under the conditions of roasting MSW incinerator fly ash with chlorinating agents. J Hazard Mater 64:75–89

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Nowak B, Pessl A, Aschenbrenner P, Szentannai P, Mattenberger H, Rechberger H, Hermann L, Winter F (2010) Heavy metal removal from municipal solid waste fly ash by chlorination and thermal treatment. J Hazard Mater 179:323–331

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Nowak B, Rocha SF, Aschenbrenner P, Rechberger H, Winter F (2012) Heavy metal removal from MSW fly ash by means of chlorination and thermal treatment: influence of the chloride type. Chem Eng J 179:178–185

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Kurashima K, Matsuda K, Kumagai S, Kameda T, Saito Y, Yoshioka T (2019) A combined kinetic and thermodynamic approach for interpreting the complex interactions during chloride volatilization of heavy metals in municipal solid waste fly ash. Waste Manag 87:204–217

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry of Japan (2016) Future demand trends for global petrochemical products (in Japanese)

  15. 15.

    Vinyl Environmental Council (2016) Statistics of PVC production

  16. 16.

    Isobe T, Seike T, Kim Y, Ito A, Harada Y (2016) Analyzing the material flow of PVC Scrap in East Asia. J LCA Jpn 12:196–207

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    United States Environmental Protection Agency (2018) Advancing sustainable materials management: 2015 tables and figures

  18. 18.

    Plastic Waste Management Institute (2017) Plastic products, plastic waste and resource recovery

  19. 19.

    Ciacci L, Passarini F, Vassura I (2017) The European PVC cycle: in-use stock and flows. Resour Conserv Recy 123:108–116

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Fukushima M, Wu B, Ibe H, Wakai K, Sugiyama E, Abe H, Kitagawa K, Tsuruga S, Shimura K, Ono E (2010) Study on dechlorination technology for municipal waste plastics containing polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene terephthalate. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 12:108–122

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Kumagai S, Hirahashi S, Grause G, Kameda T, Toyoda H, Yoshioka T (2017) Alkaline hydrolysis of PVC-coated PET fibers for simultaneous recycling of PET and PVC. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 20:439–449

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Wei M-C, Wey M-Y, Hwang J-H, Chen J-C (1998) Stability of heavy metals in bottom ash and fly ash under various incinerating conditions. J Hazard Mater 57:145–154

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Ke C, Ma X, Tang Y, Zheng W, Wu Z (2017) The volatilization of heavy metals during co-combustion of food waste and polyvinyl chloride in air and carbon dioxide/oxygen atmosphere. Bioresour Technol 244:1024–1030

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Liu J, Fu J, Ning X, Sun S, Wang Y, Xie W, Huang S, Zhong S (2015) An experimental and thermodynamic equilibrium investigation of the Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni partitioning during sewage sludge incineration. J Environ Sci 35:43–54

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Liu Z-S, Wey M-Y, Lu S-J (2003) Thermal treatment for incinerator ash: evaporation and leaching rates of metals. J Environ Eng 129:258–266

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Sasabe M, Yamashita S, Okuda T, Hara S, Marukawa K (2004) Removal of heavy metals in synthetic bottom ash of burnt urban waste by using of polyvinyl chloride. J Iron Steel Inst Jpn 90:286–293

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Nonaka R, Sugawara K, Sugawara T (2004) Release behavior of zinc and lead from molten fly ash. Kagaku Kogaku Ronbun 30:715–720

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Nonaka R, Takahashi H, Kato T, Sugawara K (2015) Release behavior and chemical-form change of lead in molten fly ashes during heat treatment. Kagaku Kogaku Ronbun 41:259–264

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Vogel C, Exner RM, Adam C (2013) Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash by thermochemical treatment with polyvinylchloride. Environ Sci Technol 47:563–567

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Rio S, Verwilghen C, Ramaroson J, Nzihou A, Sharrock P (2007) Heavy metal vaporization and abatement during thermal treatment of modified wastes. J Hazard Mater 148:521–528

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Wang S-J, He P-J, Lu W-T, Shao L-M, Zhang H (2017) Comparison of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu chlorination during pyrolysis and incineration. Fuel 194:257–265

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Wang X, Huang Y, Liu C, Zhang S, Wang Y, Piao G (2017) Dynamic volatilization behavior of Pb and Cd during fixed bed waste incineration: Effect of chlorine and calcium oxide. Fuel 192:1–9

    Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Ober JA (2017) Mineral commodity summaries 2017. US Geological Survey

  34. 34.

    Fraissler G, Joller M, Mattenberger H, Brunner T, Obernberger I (2009) Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations concerning the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge ash by chlorination. Chem Eng Process 48:152–164

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Jiao F, Zhang L, Dong Z, Namioka T, Yamada N, Ninomiya Y (2016) Study on the species of heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ash and their leaching behavior. Fuel Process Technol 152:108–115

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Liu J, Fu J, Ning X, Sun S, Wang Y, Xie W, Huang S, Zhong S (2015) An experimental and thermodynamic equilibrium investigation of the Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni partitioning during sewage sludge incineration. J Environ Sci (China) 35:43–54

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Bale C, Chartrand P, Degterov SA, Eriksson G, Hack K, Ben Mahfoud R, Melancon J, Pelton AD, Petersen S (2002) FactSage thermochemical software and databases. Calphad 26:189–228

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Grabda M, Oleszek-Kudlak S, Rzyman M, Shibata E, Nakamura T (2009) Studies on bromination and evaporation of zinc oxide during thermal treatment with TBBPA. Environ Sci Technol 43:1205–1210

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Grabda M, Oleszek-Kudlak S, Shibata E, Nakamura T (2011) Vaporization of zinc during thermal treatment of ZnO with tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). J Hazard Mater 187:473–479

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Linak WP, Wendt JOL (1993) Toxic metal emissions from incineration: Mechanisms and control. Prog Energy Combust Sci 19:145–185

    Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Jiao F, Cheng Y, Zhang L, Yamada N, Sato A, Ninomiya Y (2011) Effects of HCl, SO2 and H2O in flue gas on the condensation behavior of Pb and Cd vapors in the cooling section of municipal solid waste incineration. Proc Combust Inst 33:2787–2793

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Nakayama K, Dalibor K, Sakai K, Kubota M, Matsuda H (2008) Effect of unburned carbon on lead, zinc, and copper recovery from molten fly ash by chloride-induced volatilization. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 10:102–109

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Menad N, Bjorkman B (1998) Polyvinyl chloride used as a chlorinating and a reducing agent. Resour Conserv Recycle 24:257–274

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Al-Dawery SK, Khammas ZAA, Abdulla TA (2009) Purification of zinc oxide using direct thermal process by petroleum coke. Iraqi J Chem Petrol Eng 10:35–41

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Yu J, Sun L, Ma C, Qiao Y, Xiang J, Hu S, Yao H (2016) Mechanism on heavy metals vaporization from municipal solid waste fly ash by MgCl26H2O. Waste Manag 49:124–130

    Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Mcneill IC, Memetea L, Cole WJ (1995) A study of the products of pvc thermal-degradation. Polym Degrad Stab 49:181–191

    Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Toshiaki Y, Tetsuhiro A, Miho U, Akitsugu O (2000) Analysis of two stages dehydrochlorination of poly(vinyl chloride) using TG-MS. Chem Lett 29:322–323

    Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Zhou J, Gui B, Qiao Y, Zhang J, Wang W, Yao H, Yu Y, Xu M (2016) Understanding the pyrolysis mechanism of polyvinylchloride (PVC) by characterizing the chars produced in a wire-mesh reactor. Fuel 166:526–532

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Kumagai S, Hasegawa I, Grause G, Kameda T, Yoshioka T (2015) Thermal decomposition of individual and mixed plastics in the presence of CaO or Ca(OH)2. J Anal Appl Pyrol 113:584–590

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Suryavanshi AK, Narayan Swamy R (1996) Stability of Friedel's salt in carbonated concrete structural elements. Cem Concr Res 26:729–741

    Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Zhu F, Takaoka M, Oshita K, Kitajima Y, Inada Y, Morisawa S, Tsuno H (2010) Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments. J Hazard Mater 178:547–552

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Honus S, Kumagai S, Fedorko G, Molnár V, Yoshioka T (2018) Pyrolysis gases produced from individual and mixed PE, PP, PS, PVC, and PET—part I: production and physical properties. Fuel 221:346–360

    Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Honus S, Kumagai S, Molnár V, Fedorko G, Yoshioka T (2018) Pyrolysis gases produced from individual and mixed PE, PP, PS, PVC, and PET—part II: fuel characteristics. Fuel 221:361–373

    Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Karasek F, Dickson L (1987) Model studies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin formation during municipal refuse incineration. Science 237:754–756

    Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Kumagai S, Lu J, Fukushima Y, Ohno H, Kameda T, Yoshioka T (2018) Diagnosing chlorine industrial metabolism by evaluating the potential of chlorine recovery from polyvinyl chloride wastes—a case study in Japan. Resour Conserv Recycle 133:354–361

    Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Seki S, Osakada F, Yoshioka T (2014) Developments in an industry-led R&D program for recycling PVC products in Japan. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 16:385–397

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Seki S, Yoshioka T (2015) Recycling of PVC pipes and fittings in Japan: proactive approach of industry to and its impacts on legal/technical frameworks. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 19:21–31

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science [KAKENHI Grant Number 17H007950, and Japan Science and Technology Agency [Grant Number J170002403]. We thank Ms. Yoko Nakano for performing the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analyses and acid dissolution.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shogo Kumagai.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kurashima, K., Kumagai, S., Kameda, T. et al. Heavy metal removal from municipal solid waste fly ash through chloride volatilization using poly(vinyl chloride) as chlorinating agent. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 22, 1270–1283 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10163-020-01021-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Fly ash
  • Poly(vinyl chloride)
  • Chloride volatilization
  • Heavy metal
  • Thermodynamic calculation
  • Pyrolysis