Advertisement

Comparison of biodiesel yield of three processes using sewage sludge as feedstock and byproduct characteristics by in situ transesterification

  • Fenfen ZhuEmail author
  • Yi Dong
  • Xuemin Wu
  • Juanjuan Qi
  • Jiawei Wang
  • Guohua Liu
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 127 Downloads

Abstract

Recent studies have considered utilizing sewage sludge as feedstock for biodiesel production because of its abundance and high lipid content. In this study, we first compared the biodiesel yields of traditional transesterification, in situ transesterification, and two-step esterification–transesterification under similar conditions. The in situ process generated the highest yield of biodiesel (16.6%) with acceptable purity (94.3%) as verified by GC–MS. The most abundant species in the three methods were methyl hexadecanoate (C16:0), methyl palmitoleate (C16:1), methyl stearate (C18:0), methyl oleate (C18:1), and methyl myristate (C14:0). The byproducts from in situ transesterification included intermediate fluid, residue, and washing water. Given their recyclability, these byproducts showed negligible environmental impact. Methanol, one of the response reagents, can be recovered from the intermediate fluid. More than 80% phosphor was transferred to the intermediate fluid, whereas more than 88% nitrogen remained in the residue of sewage sludge.

Keywords

Biodiesel In situ transesterification Sewage sludge Byproduct Phosphor 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Funding was provided by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no.: 51308538) and Natural Science Foundation of Beijing Municipality (Grant no.: 8172029).

References

  1. 1.
    Dai XH (2012) The current state and consideration on urban sewage sludge disposal in China. Water Wastewater Eng 38(02):1–5.  https://doi.org/10.13789/j.cnki.wwe1964.2012.02.006 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kroiss H (2004) What is the potential for utilizing the resources in sludge? Water Sci Technol J Int Assoc Water Pollut Res 49(10):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spinosa L, Ayol A, Baudez JC, Canziani R, Jenicek P, Leonard A, Rulkens W, Xu GR, Dijk LV (2011) Sustainable and innovative solutions for sewage sludge management. Water 3(2):702–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Manzoor F, Munir N, Naz S, Sharif N, Saleem F (2013) Harvesting and processing of microalgae biomass fractions for biodiesel production (a review). Sci Technol Dev 32(3):235–243Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dufreche S, Hernandez R, French T, Sparks D, Zappi M, Alley E (2007) Extraction of lipids from municipal wastewater plant microorganisms for production of biodiesel. J Am Oil Chem Soc 84(2):181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nautiyal P, Subramanian KA, Dastidar MG (2014) Production and characterization of biodiesel from algae. Fuel Process Technol 120(120):79–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wu H, Zhang J, Wei Q, Zheng J, Zhang J (2013) Transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel using zeolite supported CaO as strong base catalysts. Fuel Process Technol 109(9):13–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Melero JA, Bautista LF, Morales G, Iglesias J, Sánchezvázquez R (2010) Biodiesel production from crude palm oil using sulfonic acid-modified mesostructured catalysts. Chem Eng J 161(3):323–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Haas M, Foglia T (2005) Alternate feedstocks and technologies for biodiesel production. In: Knothe G, Krahl J, Van Gerpen J (eds) Biodiesel handbook. AOCS Press, Urbana, pp 42–61Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dorado MP (2008) Raw materials to produce low-cost biodiesel. In: Nag A (ed) Biofuels refining and performance. McGraw-Hill Professional, New York, pp 107–147Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhu F, Zhao L, Jiang H, Zhang Z, Xiong H, Qi J, Wang J (2012) Comparison of the lipid content and biodiesel production from municipal sludge using three extraction methods. Energy Fuels 28(8):5277–5283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Qi J, Zhu F, Wei X, Zhao L, Xiong Y, Wu X (2016) Comparison of biodiesel production from sewage sludge obtained from A2/O and MBR processes by in situ transesterification. Waste Manag 49(4):212–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Revellame E, Hernandez R, French W, Holmes W, Alley E (2010) Biodiesel from activated sludge through in situ transesterification. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 85:614–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stephen D, Hernandez R, French T, Sparks DL, Zappi M, Alley E (2007) Extraction of lipids from municipal wastewater plant microorganisms for production of biodiesel. J Am Oil Chem Soc 84(2):181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mondala A, Liang K, Toghiani H, Hernandez R, French T (2009) Biodiesel production by in situ transesterification of municipal primary and secondary sludges. Biores Technol 100:1203–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Atadashi IM, Aroua MK, Aziz ARA, Sulaiman NMN (2013) The effects of catalysts in biodiesel production: A review. J Ind Eng Chem 19:14–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhu F, Wu X, Zhao L, Liu X, Qi J, Wang X, Wang J (2017) Lipid profiling in sewage sludge. Water Res 116:149–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sangaletti-Gerhard N, Cea M, Risco V, Navia R (2015) In situ biodiesel production from greasy sewage sludge using acid and enzymatic catalysts. Biores Technol 179:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Olkiewicz M, Fortuny A, Stüber F, Fabregat A, Font J, Bengoa C (2012) Evaluation of different sludges from WWTP as a potential source for biodiesel production. Proc Eng 42:634–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193(1):265Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Siddiquee MN, Rohani S (2011) Experimental analysis of lipid extraction and biodiesel production from wastewater sludge. Fuel Process Technol 92(12):2241–2251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang Y, Feng S, Bai X, Zhao J, Xia S (2016) Scum sludge as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production from wastewater treatment plants. Waste Manag 47(Pt A):91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sommers LE (1977) Chemical composition of sewage sludges and analysis of their potential use as fertilizers 1. J Environ Qual 6(2(2):225–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fonts I, Azuara M, Gea G, Murillo MB, Gonzalezperez JA, Gonzalezvila FJ (2009) Study of the pyrolysis liquids obtained from different sewage sludge. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 85(1):184–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rulkens W (2008) Sewage sludge as a biomass resource for the production of energy: overview and assessment of the various options. Energy Fuels 22(1):9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang J, Liao Z, Bi X, Liu C (2013) The analysis of the inorganic content and sand content in sludge from typical municipal wastewater treatment plants. Environ Eng 31:321–324Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zappi M, French W, Hernandez R, Dufreche S, Sparks D (2009) Production of biodiesel and other valuable chemicals from wastewater treatment plant sludges. EP, US7638314Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Revellame ED, Hernandez R, French W, Holmes W, Benson TJ, Pham PJ, Forks A, Callahan IIR (2012) Lipid storage compounds in raw activated sludge microorganisms for biofuels and oleochemicals production. RSC Adv 2(5):2015–2031CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environment and Natural ResourcesRenmin University of ChinaBeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Drainage GroupHuaifang Water Reclamation PlantBeijingChina
  3. 3.Development and Reform Commission of Bomi County in Linzhi AreaNyingchiChina
  4. 4.Research Center, Beijing Drainage GroupBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations