Advertisement

Reusing the generated sludge as Fe source in Fenton process for treating crepe rubber wastewater

  • Disni GamaralalageEmail author
  • Osamu Sawai
  • Teppei Nunoura
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 119 Downloads

Abstract

Sludge recycling in Fenton oxidation was performed following the simplest procedure for studying the reaction phenomena and the role of Fe using methanol as the model compound and crepe rubber wastewater (CRWW) as the industrial application. CRWW is odorous and high in organics, nitrogen and phosphorus. Despite the capability of degrading hardly decomposable substances, large Fe3+ sludge production confines the useful application of Fenton oxidation. This sludge is hazardous due to residual organics adsorption from treated wastewater. Batch-mode experiments were performed at 25 °C and pH 2–3 for 24 h. After neutralization (adjusting pH > 9) and centrifugation, concentrated sludge was applied in the subsequent Fenton run as the Fe source. TOC reductions of 100% and 97% in conventional Fenton and 100% and 77% in sludge reuse systems were achieved for methanol and CRWW solutions, respectively, for initial COD:H2O2:Fe2+ mass ratio of 1:8:2 with effective reuse cycles. Fe in the sludge system behaved primarily as a heterogeneous catalyst, while dissolved Fe contributed to homogeneous catalytic reactions. Dissolved Fe2+ and total Fe were accumulated in sludge runs for enhancing the homogeneous process. Outcomes indicate that the simplest sludge reuse method experimented in this work can be effectively applied as an environmentally and economically promising method.

Keywords

Sludge recycle Fenton oxidation Heterogeneous Homogeneous Rubber wastewater 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their gratitude to members of the Sorana estate crepe rubber production facility of LANKEM plantations, Sri Lanka, for providing the necessary raw CRWW samples for the study. The authors are also highly indebted to Dr. Sanja Gunawardena of the University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka, and Dr. Susantha Siriwardena of the Rubber Research Institute in Sri Lanka for their invaluable supports and assistance in CRWW collection process.

References

  1. 1.
    Credible Rubber Pricing Systems (CRPS) (2016) Natural rubber statistics 2016. Lembaga Getah Malaysia, pp 1–29. http://www.lgm.gov.my/nrstat/nrstats.pdf. Accessed 2 Nov 2017
  2. 2.
    Gamaralalage D, Sawai O, Nunoura T (2016) Effectiveness of available wastewater treatment facilities in rubber production industries in Sri Lanka. IJESD 7:940–945.  https://doi.org/10.18178/ijesd.2016.7.12.908 Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mohammadi M, Man HC, Hassan MA, Yee PL (2010) Treatment of wastewater from rubber industry in Malaysia. Afr J Biotechnol 9:6233–6243Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ngyuyen NH, Luong TT (2012) Situation of wastewater treatment of natural rubber latex processing in southeastern region, Vietnam. J Vietnam Environ 2:58–64.  https://doi.org/10.13141/jve.vol2.no2.pp58-64 Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bautista P, Mohedano AF, Casa JA, Rodriguez JJ (2008) An overview of the application of Fenton oxidation to industrial wastewaters treatment. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 83:1323–1338.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.1988 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dulov A, Dulova N, Trapido M (2011) Combined physicochemical treatment of textile and mixed industrial wastewater. Ozone Sci Eng 33:285–293.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01919512.2011.583136 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Trapido M, Nulik N, Goi A, Veressinina Y, Munter R (2009) Fenton treatment efficacy for the purification of different kinds of wastewater. Water Sci Technol 7:1795–1801.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2009.585 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lin SH, Peng CF (2008) Treatment of textile wastewater by Fenton’s reagent. J Environ Sci Health Part A 30:89–98.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10934529509376187 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lopez A, Pagano M, Volpe A, Di Pinto AC (2004) Fenton’s pre-treatment of mature landfill leachate. Chemosphere 54:1005–1010.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.09.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karthikeyan S, Titus A, Gnanamani A, Mandal AB, Sekaran G (2011) Treatment of textile wastewater by homogeneous and heterogeneous Fenton oxidation processes. Desalination 281:438–445.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2011.08.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yasar A, Ahmad N, Khan AAA (2006) Energy requirement of ultraviolet and AOPs for the post-treatment of treated combined industrial effluent. Colo Technol 122:201–206.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-4408.2006.00028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yasar A, Tabinda AB (2010) Anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewater by UASB reactor integrated with chemical oxidation processes; an overview. Pol J Environ Stud 19:1051–1061Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Metelitsa DI (1971) Mechanisms of hydroxylation of aromatic compounds. Russ Chem Rev 40:563–580.  https://doi.org/10.1070/RC1971v040n07ABEH001939 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Walling C, Goosen A (1973) Mechanisms of the ferric ion catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Effect of organic substrates. J Am Chem Soc 95:2987–2991.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00790a042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Benatti CT, da Costa ACS, Tavares CRG (2009) Characterization of solids originating from the Fenton’s process. J Hazard Mater 163:1246–1253.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.07.094 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pham ALT, Doyle FM, Sedlak DL (2012) Kinetics and efficiency of H2O2 activation by iron-containing minerals and aquifer materials. Water Res 46:6454–6462.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.09.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aleksić M, Kušić H, Koprivanac N, Leszczynska D, Božić AL (2010) Heterogeneous Fenton type processes for the degradation of organic dye pollutant in water—the application of zeolite assisted AOPs. Desalination 257:22–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2010.03.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Garrido-Ramírez EG, Theng BKG, Mora ML (2010) Clays and oxide minerals as catalysts and nanocatalysts in Fenton-like reactions—a review. Appl Clay Sci 47:182–192.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2009.11.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dulova N, Trapido M, Dulov A (2011) Catalytic Degradation of picric acid by heterogeneous Fenton-based processes. Environ Technol 32:439–446.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2010.501823 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mikhailov I, Komarov S, Levina V, Gusev A, Issi JP, Kuznetsov D (2017) Nanosized zero-valent iron as Fenton-like reagent for ultrasonic-assisted leaching of zinc from blast furnace sludge. J Hazard Mater 321:557–565.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.09.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tekbaş M, Yatmaz HC, Bektas N (2008) Heterogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation of reactive azo dye solutions using iron exchanged zeolite as a catalyst. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 115:594–602.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2008.03.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang H, Liu J, Ou C, Faheem M, Shen J, Yu H, Jiao Z, Han W, Sun X, Li J, Wang L (2017) Reuse of Fenton sludge as an iron source for NiFe2O4 synthesis and its application in the Fenton-based process. J Environ Sci (China) 53:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2016.05.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhou R, Zhang W (2017) Reuse of ferric sludge by ferrous sulfide in the Fenton process for nonylphenol ethoxylates wastewater treatment. Comput Water Energy Environ Eng 6:89–96.  https://doi.org/10.4236/cweee.2017.61007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kosaka K, Yamada H, Matsui S, Echigo S, Shishida K (1998) Comparison among the methods for hydrogen peroxide measurements to evaluate advanced oxidation processes: application of spectrophotometric method using Cu2+ ion and 2, 9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline. Environ Sci Technol 32:3821–3824.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es9800784 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gamaralalage D, Sawai O, Nunoura T (2018) Degradation behavior of palm oil mill effluent in Fenton oxidation. J Hazard Mater.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.023 Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ensing B, Buda F, Baerends EJ (2003) Fenton-like chemistry in water: oxidation catalysis by Fe(III) and H2O2. J Phys Chem A 107:5722–5731.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp0267149 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Evans MG, George P, Uri N (1948) The [Fe(OH)]+2 and [Fe(O2H)]+2 complexes. Trans Faraday Soc 45:230–236.  https://doi.org/10.1039/TF9494500230 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pignatello JJ, Liu D, Huston P (1999) Evidence for an additional oxidant in the photoassisted Fenton reaction. Environ Sci Technol 33:1832–1839.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es980969b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Minetti R, Corre C, Pauwels JF, Devolder P, Sochet LR (1991) On the reactivity of hydroperoxy radicals and hydrogen peroxide in a two-stage butane-air flame. Combust Flame 85:263–270.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-2180(91)90193-F CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lin SS, Gurol MD (1998) Catalytic Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide on iron oxide: kinetics, mechanism, and implications. Environ Sci Technol 32:1417–1423.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es970648k CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen L, Ma J, Li X, Zhang J, Fang Y, Xie P (2011) Strong enhancement on Fenton oxidation by addition of hydroxylamine to accelerate the ferric and ferrous iron cycles. Environ Sci Technol 45:3925–3930.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es2002748 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang Y, Zhao H, Li M, Fan J, Zhao G (2014) Magnetic ordered mesoporous copper ferrite as a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for the degradation of imidacloprid. Appl Catal B 147:534–545.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2013.09.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang Y, Zhao H, Li M, Fan J, Zhao G (2015) Iron-copper bimetallic nanoparticles embedded within ordered mesoporous carbon as effective and stable heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for the degradation of organic contaminants. Appl Catal B 164:396–406.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.09.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zha S, Cheng Y, Gao Y, Chen Z, Megharaj M, Naidu R (2014) Nanoscale zero-valent iron as a catalyst for heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of amoxicillin. Chem Eng J 255:141–148.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.06.057 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bigda RJ (1995) Consider Fenton’s chemistry for wastewater treatment. Chem Eng Prog 91:62–66Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bian X (2015) Rubber chemicals wastewater treatment technology research. In: Proceeding of the 2014 international conference on manufacturing and engineering technology (ICMET 2014), Sanya, China, pp 17–19 October 2014Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Munoz M, Pliego G, de Pedro ZM, Casas JA, Rodriguez JJ (2014) Application of intensified Fenton oxidation to the treatment of sawmill wastewater. Chemosphere 109:34–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.02.062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rivas FJ, Beltran FJ, Gimeno O, Frades J (2001) Treatment of olive oil mill wastewater by Fenton’s reagent. J Agric Food Chem 49:1873–1880.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf001223b CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Liu SQ, Feng LR, Xu N, Chen ZG, Wang XM (2012) Magnetic nickel ferrite as a heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst for the degradation of rhodamine B in the presence of oxalic acid. Chem Eng J 203:432–439.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.07.071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Giraldi TR, Arruda CC, da Costa GM, Longo E, Ribeiro C (2009) Heterogeneous Fenton reactants: a study of the behavior of iron oxide nanoparticles obtained by the polymeric precursor method. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 52:299–303.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10971-009-2014-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Disni Gamaralalage
    • 1
    Email author
  • Osamu Sawai
    • 2
  • Teppei Nunoura
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environment SystemsThe University of TokyoChibaJapan
  2. 2.Environmental Science CenterThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations