Production of activated carbon from walnut shell by CO2 activation in a fluidized bed reactor and its adsorption performance of copper ion

  • Long Wu
  • Zhongsheng Shang
  • Hui Wang
  • Wenjie Wan
  • Xinyuan Gao
  • Zhanyong Li
  • Noriyuki Kobayashi


Low-cost and effective activated carbon for copper ion adsorption was prepared from walnut shell by CO2 activation in a fluidized bed. The effects of activation temperature and activation time on the specific surface area and yield were investigated. The adsorption performance of copper ion on walnut shell-derived activated carbons was examined in details. BET, SEM, FT-IR and XPS were used to determine the pore structure, morphology and surface chemistry of activated carbons obtained. Under the optimal condition (i.e., activation temperature of 900 °C and activation time of 90 min) the activated carbon with maximum specific surface area of 1011 m2/g and largest pore volume of 0.65 cm3/g with uniform micropores structure (Vmicro/VTotal was more than 80%) could be produced. Changes in surface functional groups of activated carbon were observed, and the contents of carboxyl groups (–COOH) increased significantly after activation process, which is very favorable for copper ion adsorption. The kinetics for copper ion adsorption followed the Pseudo-second-order model.


Walnut shell Activated carbon Copper ion Adsorption Surface chemistry 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial supports from the International Joint Research and Development Project of Tianjin Talent Introduction and Science & Technology Cooperation Plan (14RCGFGX00850), National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFD0400900) and Scientific Research Foundation for Talents, Tianjin University of Science & Technology (10286).

Supplementary material

10163_2018_730_MOESM1_ESM.docx (186 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 185 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Long Wu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhongsheng Shang
    • 1
  • Hui Wang
    • 1
  • Wenjie Wan
    • 1
  • Xinyuan Gao
    • 1
  • Zhanyong Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Noriyuki Kobayashi
    • 3
  1. 1.Tianjin Key Laboratory of Integrated Design and On-line Monitoring for Light Industry and Food Machinery and Equipment, College of Mechanical EngineeringTianjin University of Science & TechnologyTianjinChina
  2. 2.International Joint Research Center of Low-Carbon Green Process EquipmentTianjinChina
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan

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