Advertisement

Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 614–621 | Cite as

Analysis of carbon fines obtained from the off-gas dust of calcium carbide furnace

  • Zhengke Li
  • Weize Wu
  • Xiaojin Guo
  • Qingya Liu
  • Zhenyu Liu
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

The off-gas dust of calcium carbide furnace is a hazardous waste of large quantities in China. It, however, contains valuable materials and should be recovered not only for environmental and safety reasons but also for economic reasons. This work examines carbon fines separated from the off-gas dust of a calcium carbide furnace by acid leaching using HCl and HF solutions. The carbon fines are characterized using various instrumental techniques. It is found that the carbon fines mainly consist of hollow spheres of 0.5–3.5 µm in size with multilayer graphitic shells, a BET surface area of 124.5 m2/g and a mean pore size of 4.0 nm. Some of the carbon fines enclosed smaller carbon spheres that are either hollow or enclosed with inorganic species, such as magnetic Fe3C, which can be separated magnetically. The carbon fines are good sorbent as demonstrated by quick adsorption of Congo Red in an aqueous solution to capacities of 216 or 296 mg/g with or without the magnetic separation, respectively. A mechanism for the formation of carbon spheres is proposed.

Keywords

Off-gas dust Carbon spheres Growth mechanism Adsorption Magnetic materials 

References

  1. 1.
    Li G, Liu Q, Liu Z, Zhang Z, Li C, Wu W (2010) Production of calcium carbide from fine biochars. Angew Chem Int Ed 49(45):8480–8483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Jiang M, Wang Z, Ning P, Tian S, Huang X, Bai Y, Shi Y, Ren X, Chen W, Qin Y (2014) Dust removal and purification of calcium carbide furnace off-gas. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 45(3):901–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang T, Wang L, Lin C, Hua W (1990) Buring-furnace for dusts from CaC2 furnace (in Chinese). J Jiangsu Inst Technol 11(3):16–22Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rubio B, Izquierdo M (2010) Coal fly ash based carbons for SO2 removal from flue gases. Waste Manag 30(7):1341–1347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mofarrah A, Husain T, Chen B (2014) Optimizing Cr(VI) adsorption on activated carbon produced from heavy oil fly ash. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 16(3):482–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blissett R, Rowson N (2012) A review of the multi-component utilisation of coal fly ash. Fuel 97:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Swanson S, Engle M, Ruppert L, Affolter R, Jones K (2013) Partitioning of selected trace elements in coal combustion products from two coal-burning power plants in the United States. Int J Coal Geol 113(3):116–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bartoňová L (2015) Unburned carbon from coal combustion ash: an overview. Fuel Process Technol 134:136–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Murr L, Soto K (2005) A TEM study of soot, carbon nanotubes, and related fullerene nanopolyhedra in common fuel-gas combustion sources. Mater Charact 55(1):50–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu H, Ye T, Mao C (2007) Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles derived from candle soot. Angew Chem Int Ed 46(34):6473–6475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tian L, Ghosh D, Chen W, Pradhan S, Chang X, Chen S (2009) Nanosized carbon particles from natural gas soot. Chem Mater 21(13):2803–2809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bhaumik M, McCrindle R, Maity A (2013) Efficient removal of Congo Red from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto interconnected polypyrrole–polyaniline nanofibres. Chem Eng J 228:506–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu J, Shao M, Tang Q, Chen X, Liu Z, Qian Y (2003) A medial-reduction route to hollow carbon spheres. Carbon 41(8):1682–1685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nieto-Márquez A, Romero R, Romero A, Valverde JL (2011) Carbon nanospheres: synthesis, physicochemical properties and applications. J Mater Chem 21(6):1664–1672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gong J, Liu J, Chen X, Wen X, Jiang Z, Mijowska E, Wang Y, Tang T (2013) Synthesis, characterization and growth mechanism of mesoporous hollow carbon nanospheres by catalytic carbonization of polystyrene. Micropor Mesopor Mater 176:31–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shafirovich EY, Goldshleger U (1992) Combustion of magnesium particles in CO2/CO mixtures. Combust Sci Technol 84:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ono K, Suzuki RO (2002) A new concept for producing Ti sponge: calciothermic reduction. JOM 54(2):59–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Konicki W, Cendrowski K, Chen X, Mijowska E (2013) Application of hollow mesoporous carbon nanospheres as an high effective adsorbent for the fast removal of acid dyes from aqueous solutions. Chem Eng J 228:824–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shao Y, Zhou L, Bao C, Ma J (2015) A facile approach to the fabrication of rattle-type magnetic carbon nanospheres for removal of methylene blue in water. Carbon 89:378–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Szlachta M, Wójtowicz P (2013) Adsorption of methylene blue and Congo Red from aqueous solution by activated carbon and carbon nanotubes. Water Sci Tech 68(10):2240–2248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Li S, Zhou B, Ren B, Xing L, Tan L, Dong L, Li J (2016) Preparation of MgO nanomaterials by microemulsion-based oil/water interface precipitation. Mater Lett 171:204–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Massey AT, Gusain R, Kumari S, Khatri OP (2016) Hierarchical microspheres of MoS2 nanosheets: efficient and regenerative adsorbent for removal of water-soluble dyes. Ind Eng Chem Res 55:7124–7131CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhengke Li
    • 1
  • Weize Wu
    • 1
  • Xiaojin Guo
    • 2
    • 3
  • Qingya Liu
    • 1
  • Zhenyu Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and EngineeringBeijing University of Chemical TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy and Power, Institute of Engineering ThermophysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Research Center for Clean Energy and PowerChinese Academy of SciencesLianyungangChina

Personalised recommendations