Evaluation by year of the valuable/hazardous material content of lithium-ion secondary battery cells and other components of notebook computer battery packs
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Our objective was to provide the information necessary to efficiently recover metals from end-of-life lithium-ion secondary batteries by assessing the metal content by year of production. In addition, we analyzed the concentrations of Sn and the toxic metals Pb, Cr, and Cd in battery pack components, including printed circuit boards and cables. Li and Co were the only active substances in the cathode materials of lithium-ion secondary batteries produced from 1997 to 2005. Ni and Mn also were used in cathode materials of batteries produced from 2007 to 2011. However, Ni became the main constituent in 2012, and Mn was not detected in batteries from that year. For printed circuit boards and cables, Pb concentrations from 1997 to 2004 ranged from 6451 to 12,107 mg/kg, but from 2005 onward maximum concentrations were 513 mg/kg, clearly showing that substitution for Pb had been completed a year before the EU Restriction on Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive came into effect.
KeywordsLi-ion battery Rare metal Recovery WEEE RoHS
The authors acknowledge research funding provided by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund from the Ministry of the Environment of Japan (3K143010). The authors also thank FIT FRONTIER, Ltd. (Mr. Mitsuhiro SENDA and Mr. Masahiro KUSAKA) for providing the samples and the helpful discussions.
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