Advertisement

Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 323–335 | Cite as

Size distribution and metal composition of airborne particles in a waste management facility

  • Eleftheria Chalvatzaki
  • Ilias Kopanakis
  • Mihalis Lazaridis
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

The objective of the current study was to measure the particle mass concentration, mass size distribution, and metal composition of airborne particles in a waste management facility located at Chania (Crete, Greece). Measurements were performed at two locations of the waste management facility. High particulate matter (PM10) concentrations were observed at the indoor site of manual waste sorting. In particular, the average concentration of PM10 was equal to 217 μg/m3 during working hours, while during non-working hours was equal to 60 μg/ m3. The particle mass size distributions were unimodal reflecting the resuspension of coarse particles. Furthermore, the deposited dose of particles and particle-bound metals and their retention in the human respiratory tract was determined using a dosimetry model (ExDoM2). The ExDoM2 model was applied for an adult male worker (06:30–14:30) at the indoor site of a manual waste sorting. The daily working deposited dose of PM10 ranged from 1677 to 3028 μg, while the daily working deposited dose of particle-bound metals ranged from 22 to 39 μg. The highest daily working deposited dose in the respiratory tract is calculated for iron mass (PΜFe) and the daily working deposited dose for PΜFe ranged from 18 to 33 μg.

Keywords

Particulate matter Exposure Dose Workers ExDoM2 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank the associate professor N. Lydakis-Simantiris and his co-workers K. Krommyda and L. Raisi at the laboratory of Environmental Chemistry & Biochemical Processes (Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering) for their valuable technical support. In addition, we would like to thank the professor N. Nikolaidis and his co-worker L. Saru at the laboratory of Hydrogeochemical Engineering and Remediation of Soils for the ICP-MS measurements. We also thank the Municipal Enterprise for the Management of Solid Waste in Chania Prefecture (DEDISA) for the permission of field sampling at the indoor site of manual waste sorting and at the outdoor weighing facility. Especially, we thank Mr. M. Kontaxakis (Manager of sanitary landfill site-Head of programming office) and Mr. K. Paterakis (Director of Mechanical Recycling & Composting Plant). Finally, we thank the associate professor E. Katsivela for her helpful advices.

References

  1. 1.
    Espinosa AF, Rodriguez T, Barragan F, Sanchez J (2001) Size distribution of metals in urban aerosols in Seville (Spain). Atmos Environ 35:2595–2601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zereini F, Alt F, Messerschmidt J, Wiseman C, Feldmann I, von Bohlen A, Muller J, Liebl K, Puttmann W (2005) Concentration and distribution of heavy metals in urban airborne particulate matter in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Environ Sci Technol 39:2983–2989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Karanasiou AA, Sitaras IE, Siskos PA, Eleftheriadis K (2007) Size distribution and sources of trace metals and n-alkanes in the Athens urban aerosol during summer. Atmos Environ 41:2368–2381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kopanakis I, Eleftheriadis K, Mihalopoulos N, Lydakis- Simantiris N, Katsivela E, Pentari D, Zarmpas M, Lazaridis M (2012) Physico-chemical characteristics of particulate matter in the Eastern Mediterranean. Atmos Res 106: 93–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Koshy L, Jones T, Berube K (2009) Characterization and bioreactivity of respirable airborne particles from a municipal landfill. Biomarkers 14(S1):49–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Han S, Youn JS, Jung Y (2011) Characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 source profiles for resuspended road dust collected using mobile sampling methodology. Atmos Environ 45:3343–3351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chalvatzaki E, Kopanakis I, Kontaksakis M, Glytsos T, Kalogerakis N, Lazaridis M (2010) Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece). Waste Manag 30:2058–2064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chalvatzaki E, Aleksandropoulou V, Glytsos T, Lazaridis M (2012) The effect of dust emissions from open storage piles to particle ambient concentration and human exposure. Waste Manag 32:2456–2468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chalvatzaki E, Aleksandropoulou V, Lazaridis M (2014) A case study of landfill workers exposure and dose to particulate matter-bound metals. Water Air Soil Pollut 225:1782–1800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chalvatzaki E, Glytsos T, Lazaridis M (2015) A methodology for the determination of fugitive dust emissions from landfill sites. Int J Environ Health Res 25(5):551–569Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    WHO (2003) Health Aspects of air pollution with particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Report on a WHO Working Group. Bonn, Germany. EUR/03/5042688. http://www.euro.who.int/document/e79097.pdf. Accessed 10 Nov 2015
  12. 12.
    Pope CA III, Dockery DW (2006) Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 56(6):709–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nasir ZA, Colbeck I (2009) Particulate air pollution in transport micro-environments. J Environ Monit 11:1140–1146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kelly J, Fussell C (2012) Size, source and chemical composition as determinants of toxicity attributable to ambient particulate matter. Atmos Environ 60:504–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Harrison RM, Yin J (2000) Particulate matter in the atmosphere: which particle properties are important for its effects on health? Sci Total Environ 249(1–3):85–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Patterson RF, Zhang Q, Zheng M, Zhu Y (2014) Particle deposition in respiratory tracts of school-aged children. Aerosol Air Qual Res 14: 64–73.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Morawska L, Keogh DU, Thomas SB, Mengersen K (2008) Modality in ambient particle size distributions and its potential as a basis for developing air quality regulation. Atmos Environ 42: 1617–1628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Koehler KA, Volckens J (2013) Development of a sampler to estimate regional deposition of aerosol in the human respiratory tract. Ann Occup Hyg 57:1138–1147Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mishra AK, Maiti SK, Pal AK (2013) Status of PM10 bound heavy metals in ambient air in certain parts of Jharia coal field, Jharkhand, India. Int J Environ Sci 4:141–150Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chalvatzaki E, Lazaridis M (2015) Development and application of a dosimetry model (ExDoM2) for calculating internal dose of specific particle bound metals in the human body. Inhal Toxicol 27(6):308–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    TSI (2003) Model 8534 DustTRAK DRX Aerosol Monitor. Operation and Service Manual. http://www.tsi.com/uploadedFiles/_Site_Root/Products/Literature/Manuals/8533-8534 DustTrak_DRX-6001898-web.pdf Accessed 10 Nov 2015
  22. 22.
    Chen J, Tan M, Li Y, Zheng G, Zhang Y, Shan Z, Zhang G, Li Y (2008) Characteristics of trace elements and lead isotope ratios in PM2.5 from four sites in Shanghai. J Hazard Mater 156:36–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Alloway BJ (1995) Heavy metals in soils. Blackie Academic & Professional, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Aleksandropoulou V, Lazaridis M (2013) Development and application of a model (ExDoM) for calculating the respiratory tract dose and retention of particles under variable exposure conditions. Air Qual Atmos Health (London) 6:13–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    ICRP (2015) Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides: Part 1. ICRP Publication 130. Ann ICRP 44(2).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Serfozo N, Chatoutsidou S, Lazaridis M (2014) The effect of particle resuspension during walking activity to PM10 mass and number concentrations in an indoor microenvironment. Build Environ 82: 180–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Viana M, Kuhlbusch TAJ, Querol X, Alastuey A, Harrison RM, Hopke PK, Winiwarter W, Vallius M, Szidat S, Prévôt ASH, Hueglin C, Bloemen H, Wahlin, Vecchi R, Miranda AI, Kasper-Giebl A, Maenhaut W, Hitzenberger R (2008) Source apportionment of particulate matter in Europe: a review of methods results. J Aerosol Sci 39:827–849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    WHO (1999) Manganese and its compounds. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 12. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42184/1/924153012X.pdf. Accessed 10 Nov 2015
  29. 29.
    WHO (2013) Lead poisoning and health. Lead poisoning and health. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs379/en/ Accessed 10 Nov 2015
  30. 30.
    IPCS (1995) Inorganic lead. Geneva, World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety. Environmental health criteria 165. http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc165.htm Accessed 10 Nov 2015
  31. 31.
    Cornelis R, Crews H, Caruso J, Heumann K (2003) Handbook of elemental speciation: techniques and methodology. Wiley, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    O’Flaherty EJ, Kerger BD, Hays SM, Paustenbach DJ (2001) A physiologically based model for the ingestion of chromium (III) and Chromium (VI) by humans. Toxicol Sci 60:196–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eleftheria Chalvatzaki
    • 1
  • Ilias Kopanakis
    • 1
  • Mihalis Lazaridis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringTechnical University of CreteChaniaGreece

Personalised recommendations