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Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 293–301 | Cite as

Recovery of ammonium ion as struvite from flue gas scrubbing wastewater

  • Shanti Thapa
  • Tae Young Ha
  • Heonsuk Lee
  • Adedeji A. Adelodun
  • Jo Young Min
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

Direct disposal of flue gas scrubbing-derived waste water with a high level (9000–10,000 mg/L) of ammonium ion (NH4 +) into aquatic systems has contributed to environmental depreciation. Here, we report a feasibility study on NH4 + recovery and conversion to struvite (NH4MgPO4·6H2O), which is a slow-release fertilizer. Such conversion also aids in compliance with the discharge limits for nitrogen-based compounds. Lab-scale experiments were performed to determine the optimum pH and molar ratio (Mg2+:NH4 +:PO4 3−) for struvite formation. A chemical equilibrium model (Visual Minteq) was also employed to corroborate the experimental results. The optimum pH for struvite precipitation was found to be pH 9 with a molar ratio of Mg2+:NH4 +:PO4³ = 1:1:1. At this pH, more than 93, 92.3 and 100% of the NH4 +, Mg2+ and PO4 3−, respectively, were removed from the scrubbing waste water Visual Minteq simulation also demonstrated optimum struvite formation at pH 9–10. Both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analysis revealed that the synthesized struvite was comparable to that of a commercial struvite. Thus, our findings confirmed the possibility of synthesizing struvite from de-NOx scrubbing wastewater utilizing the residual ammonium ions (NH4 +).

Keywords

Flue gas De-NOx scrubber Wastewater Struvite Equilibrium model 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the Korean Ministry of Environment (No. 201400110019), and the authors are grateful for the instrument support by Kyung Hee University (KHU-20152127).

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Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shanti Thapa
    • 1
  • Tae Young Ha
    • 1
  • Heonsuk Lee
    • 1
  • Adedeji A. Adelodun
    • 2
  • Jo Young Min
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringKyung Hee UniversityYonginSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Marine Science and Technology, School of Earth and Mineral SciencesThe Federal University of TechnologyAkureNigeria

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