Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in multi-matrices from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in Northern China

  • Wen-Jun Hong
  • Hongliang Jia
  • Yongsheng Ding
  • Wen-Long Li
  • Yi-Fan Li


The present study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in soil, water, reed, air and dust samples collected from the e-waste recycling region in Ziya Town, Northern China. The results showed that the concentrations of PCBs reached relative high level in environmental matrices in the study area. HFRs including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP), allyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (ATE), tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (TBECH), pentabromotoluene (PBT), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), 2,3-dibromopropyl 2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE) and so on were also widely detected in multi-matrices. Long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) potentials of non-BDE HFRs were assessed to address the LRAR abilities of these compounds. Analysis of soil–air exchange of PCBs and HFRs showed that soil acted as a secondary source to the atmosphere only for a few low molecular weight compounds, while the direction of the flux of most detected chemicals was from air to soil.


PCBs HFRs e-Waste Concentration Soil–air exchange 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21207011) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (3132014306).

Supplementary material

10163_2016_550_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2.6 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 2670 kb)


  1. 1.
    Robinson BH (2009) E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts. Sci Total Environ 408:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhang T, Huang YR, Chen SJ, Liu AM, Xu PJ, Li N, Qi L, Ren Y, Zhou ZG, Mai BX (2012) PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs, and PBDEs in the air of an e-waste recycling area (Taizhou) in China: current levels, composition profiles, and potential cancer risks. J Environ Monit 14:3156–3163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen D, Bi X, Zhao J, Chen L, Tan J, Mai B, Sheng G, Fu J, Wong M (2009) Pollution characterization and diurnal variation of PBDEs in the atmosphere of an e-waste dismantling region. Environ Pollut 157:1051–1057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tang X, Shen C, Shi D, Cheema SA, Khan MI, Zhang C, Chen Y (2010) Heavy metal and persistent organic compound contamination in soil from Wenling: an emerging e-waste recycling city in Taizhou area, China. J Hazard Mater 173:653–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    MÖller A, Xie Z, Cai M, Zhong G, Huang P, Cai M, Sturm R, He J, Ebinghaus R (2011) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers vs alternate brominated flame retardants and dechloranes from East Asia to the Arctic. Environ Sci Technol 45:6793–6799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Deng WJ, Zheng JS, Bi XH, Fu JM, Wong MH (2007) Distribution of PBDEs in air particles from an electronic waste recycling site compared with Guangzhou and Hong Kong, South China. Environ Int 33:1063–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    UNEP (2001) Regionally based assessment of persistent toxic substances: Central and North East Asia Region. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, p 10Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang D, Cai Z, Jiang G, Leung A, Wong MH, Wong WK (2005) Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil and sediment from an electronic waste recycling facility. Chemosphere 60:810–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wu JP, Luo XJ, Zhang Y, Luo Y, Chen SJ, Mai BX, Yang ZY (2008) Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in wild aquatic species from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in South China. Environ Int 34:1109–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tang Z, Huang Q, Cheng J, Yang Y, Yang J, Guo W, Nie Z, Zeng N, Jin L (2014) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils, sediments, and human hair in a plastic waste recycling area: a neglected heavily polluted area. Environ Sci Technol 48:1508–1516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhang Q, Ye J, Chen J, Xu H, Wang C, Zhao M (2014) Risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals in soils of an abandoned e-waste site in China. Environ Pollut 185:258–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shen L, Reiner EJ, MacPherson KA, Kolic TM, Sverko E, Helm PA, Bhavsar SP, Brindle ID, Marvin CH (2010) Identification and screening analysis of halogenated norbornene flame retardants in the Laurentian Great Lakes: Dechloranes 602, 603, 604. Environ Sci Technol 44:760–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhao G, Wang Z, Dong MH, Rao K, Luo J, Wang D, Zha J, Huang S, Xu Y, Ma M (2008) PBBs, PBDEs, and PCBs levels in hair of residents around e-waste disassembly sites in Zhejiang Province, China, and their potential sources. Sci Total Environ 397:46–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Birnbaum LS, Staskal DF (2004) Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern? Environ Health Perspect 112:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen D, Bi X, Liu M, Huang B, Sheng G, Fu J (2011) Phase partitioning, concentration variation and risk assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the atmosphere of an e-waste recycling site. Chemosphere 82:1246–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang XL, Luo XJ, Liu HY, Yu LH, Chen SJ, Mai BX (2011) Bioaccumulation of several brominated flame retardants and dechlorane plus in waterbirds from an e-waste recycling region in south China: associated with trophic level and diet sources. Environ Sci Technol 45:400–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Simonsen FA, Stavnsbjerg M, Moller LM, Madsen T (2000) Brominated flame retardants: toxicity and ecotoxicity. København, Miljøstyrelsen, Environmental Project No. 568. Accessed 21 Aug 2014
  18. 18.
    Yang Q, Qiu X, Li R, Liu S, Li K, Wang F, Zhu P, Li G, Zhu T (2013) Exposure to typical persistent organic pollutants from an electronic waste recycling site in Northern China. Chemosphere 91:205–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhao Y, Ma J, Qiu X, Lin Y, Yang Q, Zhu T (2013) Gridded field observations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane in the atmosphere of North China. Environ Sci Technol 47:8123–8129Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Harner T, Shoeib M, Diamond M, Stern G, Rosenberg B (2004) Using passive air samplers to assess urban-rural trends for persistent organochlorine pollutants. 1. polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides. Environ Sci Technol 38:4474–4483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jia H, Sun Y, Liu X, Yang M, Wang D, Qi H, Shen L, Sverko ED, Reiner EJ, Li YF (2011) Concentration and bioaccumulation of dechloranes compounds in coastal environment of northern China. Environ Sci Technol 45:2613–2618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li WL, Qi H, Ma WL, Liu LY, Zhang Z, Zhu NZ, Mohammed MOA, Li YF (2015) Occurrence, behavior and human health risk assessment of dechlorane plus and related compounds in indoor dust of China. Chemosphere 134:166–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ma WL, Li YF, Qi H, Sun DZ, Liu LY, Wang DG (2010) Seasonal variations of sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to a northeastern urban city, China. Chemosphere 79:441–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hong WJ, Jia H, Li YF, Sun Y, Liu X, Wang L (2016) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs in the coastal seawater, surface sediment and oyster from Dalian, Northeast China. Ecotox Environ Safe 128:11–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wong MH, Wu SC, Deng WJ, Yu XZ, Luo Q, Leung AOW, Wong CS, Luksemburg WJ, Wong AS (2007) Export of toxic chemicals: a review of the case of uncontrolled electronic-waste recycling. Environ Pollut 149:131–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fu J, Wang T, Wang P, Qu G, Wang Y, Zhang Q, Zhang A, Jiang G (2012) Temporal trends (2005–2009) of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDEs in rice hulls from an e-waste dismantling area after stricter environmental regulations. Chemosphere 88:330–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Li H, Bai J, Li Y, Cheng H, Zeng EY, You J (2011) Short-range transport of contaminants released from e-waste recycling site in South China. J Environ Monit 13:836–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Han W, Feng J, Gu Z, Wu M, Sheng G, Fu J (2010) Polychlorinated biphenyls in the atmosphere of Taizhou, a major e-waste dismantling area in China. J Environ Sci 22:589–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Xing GH, Chan JKY, Leung AOW, Wu SC, Wong MH (2009) Environmental impact and human exposure to PCBs in Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site in China. Environ Int 35:76–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sun P, Basu I, Blanchard P, Brice KA, Hites RA (2007) Temporal and spatial trends of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations near the Great Lakes. Environ Sci Technol 41:1131–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang Z, Liu L, Li YF, Wang DG, Jia HL, Harner T, Sverko E, Wan X, Xu D, Ren N, Ma JM, Pozo K (2008) Analysis of Polychlorinated biphenyls in concurrently sampled Chinese air and surface soil. Environ Sci Technol 42:6514–6518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ren N, Que M, Li YF, Liu Y, Wan X, Xu D, Sverko ED, Ma J (2007) Polychlorinated biphenyls in Chinese surface soils. Environ Sci Technol 41:3871–3876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zheng J, Yan X, Chen SJ, Peng XW, Hu GC, Chen KH, Luo XJ, Mai BX, Yang ZY (2013) Polychlorinated biphenyls in human hair at an e-waste site in China: composition profiles and chiral signatures in comparison to dust. Environ Int 54:128–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Xing GH, Liang Y, Chen LX, Wu SC, Wong MH (2011) Exposure to PCBs, through inhalation, dermal contact and dust ingestion at Taizhou, China–a major site for recycling transformers. Chemosphere 83:605–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chakraborty P, Prithiviraj B, Selvaraj S, Kumar B (2016) Polychlorinated biphenyls in settled dust from informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby highways in urban centers and suburban industrial roadsides of Chennai city, India: levels, congener profiles and exposure assessment. Sci Total Environ (accepted)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tue NM, Takahashi S, Suzuki G, Isobe T, Viet PH, Kobara Y, Seike N, Zhang G, Sudaryanto A, Tanabe S (2013) Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites. Environ Int 51:160–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wang Y (2016) Health risk of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls of migrant workers or local residents in electric waste recycling area. Master thesis, Zhejiang University, China (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang Y, Hu J, Lin W, Wang N, Li C, Luo P, Hashmi MZ, Wang W, Su X, Chen C, Liu Y, Huang R, Shen C (2016) Health risk assessment of migrant workers’ exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in air and dust in an e-waste recycling area in China: indication for a new wealth gap in environmental rights. Environ Int 87:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Leung A, Cai ZW, Wong MH (2006) Environmental contamination from electronic waste recycling at Guiyu, Southeast China. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 8:21–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Labunska I, Harrad S, Santillo D, Johnstona P, Brigdena K (2013) Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, sediment and dust samples collected from various electronic waste recycling sites within Guiyu town, Southern China. Environ Sci Processes Impacts 15:503–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Luo Y, Luo XJ, Lin Z, Chen SJ, Liu J, Mai BX, Yang ZY (2009) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in road and farmland soils from an e-waste recycling region in Southern China: concentrations, source profiles, and potential dispersion and deposition. Sci Total Environ 407:1105–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wang S, Zhang S, Huang H, Niu Z, Han W (2014) Characterization of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hydroxylated and methoxylated PBDEs in soils and plants from an e-waste area, China. Environ Pollut 184:405–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zheng X, Xu F, Chen K, Zeng Y, Luo X, Chen S, Mai B, Covaci A (2015) Flame retardants and organochlorines in indoor dust from several e-waste recycling sites in South China: composition variations and implications for human exposure. Environ Int 78:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Arias PA (2001) Brominated flame retardants–an overview. The Second International Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants, BFR 2001, Stockholm, p 17–19Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kierkegaard A, Björklund J, Fridén U (2004) Identification of the flame retardant decabromodiphenyl ethane in the environment. Environ Sci Technol 38:3247–3253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhang XL, Luo XJ, Chen SJ, Wu JP, Mai BX (2009) Spatial distribution and vertical profile of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, tetrabromobisphenol A, and decabromodiphenylethane in river sediment from an industrialized region of South China. Environ Pollut 157:1917–1923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Qi H, Li WL, Liu LY, Song WW, Ma WL, Li YF (2014) Brominated flame retardants in the urban atmosphere of Northeast China: concentrations, temperature dependence and gas–particle partitioning. Sci Total Environ 491–492:60–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shi T, Chen SJ, Luo XJ, Zhang XL, Tang CM, Luo Y, Ma YJ, Wu JP, Peng XZ, Mai BX (2009) Occurrence of brominated flame retardants other than polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental and biota samples from southern China. Chemosphere 74:910–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Muenhor D, Harrad S, Ali N, Covaci A (2010) Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in air and dust from electronic waste storage facilities in Thailand. Environ Int 36:690–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Stapleton HM, Allen JG, Kelly SM, Konstantinov A, Klosterhaus S, Watkins D, McClean MD, Webster TF (2008) Alternate and new brominated flame retardants detected in US house dust. Environ Sci Technol 42:6910–6916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Karlsson M, Julander A, van Bavel B, Hardell L (2007) Levels of brominated flame retardants in blood in relation to levels in household air and dust. Environ Int 33:62–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Harrad S, Ibarra C, Abdallah MA, Boon R, Neels H, Covaci A (2008) Concentrations of brominated flame retardants in dust from United Kingdom cars, homes and offices: causes of variability and implications for human exposure. Environ Int 34:1170–1175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    WHO (1997) Environmental health criteria 192. Flame retardants: A general introduction. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  54. 54.
    Hoh E, Hites RA (2005) Brominated flame retardants in the atmosphere of the East-Central United States. Environ Sci Technol 39:7794–7802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fromme H, Hilger B, Kopp E, Miserok M, Völkel W (2014) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and “novel” brominated flame retardants in house dust in Germany. Environ Int 64:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ali N, Mehdi T, Malik RN, Eqani SAMAS, Kamal A, Dirtu AC, Neels H, Covaci A (2014) Levels and profile of several classes of organic contaminants in matched indoor dust and serum samples from occupational settings of Pakistan. Environ Pollut 193:269–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Covaci A, Harrad S, Abdallah MA, Ali N, Law RJ, Herzke D, de Wit CA (2011) Novel brominated flame retardants: a review of their analysis, environmental fate and behaviour. Environ Int 37:532–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Xie Z, Möller A, Ahrens L, Caba A, Sturm R, Ebinghaus R (2010) Brominated flame retardants and dechlorane plus in air and sea water of the Atlantic Ocean and the Antarctic. In: Proceedings of the BFR 2010 Conference, KyotoGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Tomy GT, Pleskach K, Arsenault G, Potter D, McCrindle R, Marvin CH, Sverko E, Tittlemier SA (2008) Identification of the novel cycloaliphatic brominated flame retardant 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane in Canadian Arctic beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). Environ Sci Technol 42:543–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Arsenault G, Lough A, Marvin CH, McAlees A, McCrindle R, MacInnis G, Pleskach K, Potter D, Riddell N, Sverko E, Tittlemier SA, Tomy GT (2008) Structure characterization and thermal stabilities of the isomers of the brominated flame retardant 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane. Chemosphere 72:1163–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Venier M, Ma Y, Hites RA (2012) Bromobenzene flame retardants in the Great Lakes atmosphere. Environ Sci Technol 46:8653–8660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    European Chemical Substance Information System (ESIS) (2010) European Commission, Joint Research Centre, European Chemicals BureauGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hoh E, Zhu L, Hites RA (2005) Novel flame retardants, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-ethane and 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethylbenzene, in United States’ environmental samples. Environ Sci Technol 39:2472–2477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Koilc TM, Shen L, MacPherson K, Fayez L, Gobran T, Helm PA, Marvin CH, Arsenault G, Reiner EJ (2009) The analysis of halogenated flame retardants by GC-HRMS in environmental samples. J Chromatogr Sci 47:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    von der Recke R, Vetter W (2007) Synthesis and characterization of 2, 3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) and structurally related compounds evidenced in seal blubber and brain. Environ Sci Technol 41:1590–1595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mattsson PE, Norström Å, Rappe C (1975) Identification of the flame retardant pentabromotoluene in sewage sludge. J Chromatogr A 111:209–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gauthier LT, Hebert CE, Weseloh DVC, Letcher RJ (2007) Current-use flame retardants in the eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the Laurentian Great lakes. Environ Sci Technol 41:4561–4567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gouteux B, Alaee M, Mabury SA, Pacepavicius G, Muir DC (2008) Polymeric brominated flame retardants: are they a relevant source of emerging brominated aromatic compounds in the environment? Environ Sci Technol 42:9039–9044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Yamaguchi Y, Kawano M, Tatsukawa R, Moriwaki S (1988) Hexabromobenzene and its debrominated compounds in human adipose tissues of Japan. Chemosphere 17:703–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Watanabe I, Kashimoto T, Tatsukawa R (1986) Hexabromobenzene and its debrominated compounds in river and estuary sediments in Japan. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 36:778–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Buser HR (1986) Polybrominated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins: thermal reaction products of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants. Environ Sci Technol 20:404–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Saito I, Onuki A, Seto H (2007) Indoor organophosphate and polybrominated flame retardants in Tokyo. Indoor Air 17:28–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Vetter W, von der Recke R, Ostrowicz P, Rosenfelder N (2010) Liquid chromatographic enantioseparation of the brominated flame retardant 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (DPTE) and enantiomer fractions in seal blubber. Chemosphere 78:134–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zhu J, Hou Y, Feng YL, Shoeib M, Harner T (2008) Identification and determination of hexachlorocyclopentadienyl-dibromocyclooctane (HCDBCO) in residential indoor air and dust: a previously unreported halogenated flame retardant in the environment. Environ Sci Technol 42:386–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zhou SN, Siddique S, Lavoie L, Takser L, Abdelouahab N, Zhu J (2014) Hexachloronorbornene-based flame retardants in humans: levels in maternal serum and milk. Environ Int 66:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kalachová K, Pulkrabová J, Hradková P, Poustka J, Hajslová J (2009) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust samples from Czech households. Organohalogen Compd 71:2320–2324Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Riddell N, Arsenault G, Lough A, McAlees A, Mccrindle R, Meissner J, Robertson V (2008) The threedimensional structural characterization of hexachlorocyclopentenyl-dibromocyclooctane (HCDBCO). Chemosphere 73:479–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gauthier LT, Potter D, Hebert CE, Letcher RJ (2009) Temporal trends and spatial distribution of non-polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the eggs of colonial populations of Great Lakes herring gulls. Environ Sci Technol 43:312–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Yu Z, Lu S, Gao S, Wang J, Li H, Zeng X, Sheng G, Fu J (2010) Levels and isomer profiles of dechlorane plus in the surface soils from e-waste recycling areas and industrial areas in South China. Environ Pollut 158:2920–2925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Xiao K, Wang P, Zhang H, Shang H, Li Y, Li X, Ren D, Chen W, Zhang Q (2013) Levels and profiles of dechlorane plus in a major e-waste dismantling area in China. Environ Geochem Health 35:625–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sverko E, Tomy GT, Marvin CH, Zaruk D, Reiner E, Helm PA, Hill B, McCarry BE (2008) Dechlorane plus levels in sediment of the lower Great Lakes. Environ Sci Technol 42:361–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Zheng J, Wang J, Luo J, Tian M, Luo YY, Yuan JG, Mai BX, Yang ZY (2010) Dechlorane plus in human hair from an e-waste recycling area in South China: comparison with dust. Environ Sci Technol 44:9298–9303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Chen SJ, Tian M, Wang J, Shi T, Luo Y, Luo XJ, Mai BX (2011) Dechlorane plus (DP) in air and plants at an electronic waste (e-waste) site in South China. Environ Pollut 159:1290–1296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Yan X, Zheng J, Chen KH, Yang J, Luo XJ, Yu LH, Chen SJ, Mai BX, Yang ZY (2012) Dechlorane plus in serum from e-waste recycling workers: influence of gender and potential isomer-specific metabolism. Environ Int 49:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wang DG, Yang M, Qi H, Sverko E, Ma WL, Li YF, Alaee M, Reiner EJ, Shen L (2010) An Asia-specific source of Dechlorane Plus: concentration, isomer profiles, and other related compounds. Environ Sci Technol 44:6608–6613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Qiu X, Hites RA (2008) Dechlorane plus and other flame retardants in tree bark from the Northeastern United States. Environ Sci Technol 42:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Fu J, Wang Y, Zhang A, Zhang Q, Zhao Z, Wang T, Jiang G (2011) Spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in an e-waste dismantling region in Southeast China: use of apple snail (Ampullariidae) as a bioindicator. Chemosphere 82:648–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Zhao YX, Qin XF, Li Y, Liu PY, Tian M, Yan SS, Qin ZF, Xu XB, Yang YJ (2009) Diffusion of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) from an e-waste recycling area to the surrounding regions in Southeast China. Chemosphere 76:1470–1476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wang P, Zhang Q, Wang Y, Wang T, Li X, Li Y, Ding L, Jiang G (2009) Altitude dependence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in surface soil from Tibetan Plateau, China. Chemosphere 76:1498–1504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Li YF, Harner T, Liu L, Zhang Z, Ren NQ, Jia H, Ma J, Sverko E (2010) Polychlorinated biphenyls in global air and surface soil: distributions, air-soil exchange, and fractionation effect. Environ Sci Technol 44:2784–2790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    de Wit CA, Herzke D, Vorkamp K (2010) Brominated flame retardants in the Arctic environment - trends and new candidates. Sci Total Environ 408:2885–2918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wegmann F, Cavin L, MacLeod M, Scheringer M, Hungerbühler K (2009) The OECD software tool for screening chemicals for persistence and long-range transport potential. Environ Modell Softw 24:228–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Beyer A, Mackay D, Matthies M, Wania F, Webster E (2000) Assessing longrange transport potential of persistent organic pollutants. Environ Sci Technol 34:699–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Wania F, Mackay D (1993) Global fractionation and cold condensation of low volatility organochlorine compounds in polar regions. Ambio 22:10–18Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Cetin B, Odabasi M (2007) Particle-phase dry deposition and air-soil gas-exchange of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Izmir, Turkey. Environ Sci Technol 41:4986–4992CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Joint Research Centre for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), College of Environmental Science and EngineeringDalian Maritime UniversityDalianChina
  2. 2.Zhejiang Scientific Research Institute of TransportHangzhouChina
  3. 3.IJRC-PTS, College of Ocean and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Maritime UniversityShanghaiChina
  4. 4.IJRC-PTS, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina

Personalised recommendations