Clinical and Experimental Nephrology

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 668–676 | Cite as

Opacity of big toenail predicts poor prognosis in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis

  • Osamu Soma
  • Shingo Hatakeyama
  • Teppei Matsumoto
  • Toshikazu Tanaka
  • Yoshimi Tanaka
  • Shogo Hosogoe
  • Hirotake Kodama
  • Hirotaka Horiguchi
  • Yuka Kubota
  • Koichi Kido
  • Masaki Momota
  • Go Anan
  • Ikuyo Narita
  • Ryuji Kitahara
  • Hisao Saitoh
  • Tadashi Suzuki
  • Chikara Ohyama
Original article

Abstract

Background

The impact of nail abnormalities on prognosis in hemodialysis patients is unknown. This study investigated whether toenail opacity as a readout of nail abnormalities predicted prognosis in hemodialysis patients.

Methods

In this observational study, 494 eligible hemodialysis patients who received hemodialysis at Oyokyo Kidney Research Institute between September 2010 and December 2015 were included. The presence of nail abnormalities was objectively evaluated by big toenail opacity ratio measurement. Primary endpoint was overall survival, and secondary endpoints were lower limb amputation and determination of risk factors for poor prognosis among patient demographics, comorbidities, blood tests, and big toenail opacity. Overall survival and lower limb survival were evaluated using the Kaplan–Meier method with log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression analyses assessed predictors for poor prognosis.

Results

Big toenail opacity was found in 259 (52%) patients. Patients with big toenail opacity were significantly older, had shorter duration of dialysis, higher prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and higher mortality rates than those without opacity. Presence of big toenail opacity predicted poor prognosis for both overall and lower limb survival. Multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed serum albumin, the presence of DM and big toenail opacity were independent risk factors for both poor overall and lower limb survivals.

Conclusion

The prevalence of big toenail opacity was high in hemodialysis patients. Despite the short observation period, our findings indicated that big toenail opacity had significant predictive power for poor overall and lower limb survival.

Keywords

End-stage renal disease Hemodialysis Prognosis Toenail opacity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Daisuke Noro, Itsuto Hamaono, Kazuhisa Hagiwara, Naoki Fujita, Atsushi Imai, Hayato Yamamoto, Takahiro Yoneyama, Yasuhiro Hashimoto, Takuya Koie for their invaluable help with data collection and suggestions. The authors would like to thank Enago (http://www.enago.jp) for the English language review.

Author contributions

Conception and design: SH, acquisition of data: OS, TM, TT, YT, SH, HK, HH, YK, KK, GA, MM, IN, RK, HS, analysis and interpretation of data: SH, drafting of the manuscript: OS, SH, critical revision of the manuscript: CO, TS, statistical analysis: SH, obtaining funding: SH, CO.

Compliance with ethical standards

Source of funding

This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 15H02563, 15K15579, 17K1118, 17K1119, 17K16768, 17K16770, and 17K16771) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and animal rights

This retrospective observational study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by an ethics review board of Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine and Oyokyo Kidney Research Institute (approval no 2016-225).

Informed consent

The participants in this study provide their verbal informed consent. Pursuant to the provisions of the ethics committee and the ethic guideline in Japan, written consent was not required in exchange for public disclosure of study information in the case of retrospective and/or observational study using a material such as the existing documentation.

Supplementary material

10157_2017_1495_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (58 kb)
Supplemental file S1. Nomograms for 5-year overall and lower limb survivals (XLSX 58 kb)

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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Nephrology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Osamu Soma
    • 1
  • Shingo Hatakeyama
    • 1
  • Teppei Matsumoto
    • 1
  • Toshikazu Tanaka
    • 1
  • Yoshimi Tanaka
    • 1
  • Shogo Hosogoe
    • 1
  • Hirotake Kodama
    • 1
  • Hirotaka Horiguchi
    • 1
  • Yuka Kubota
    • 1
  • Koichi Kido
    • 1
  • Masaki Momota
    • 1
  • Go Anan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ikuyo Narita
    • 3
  • Ryuji Kitahara
    • 4
  • Hisao Saitoh
    • 4
  • Tadashi Suzuki
    • 4
  • Chikara Ohyama
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of UrologyHirosaki University Graduate School of MedicineHirosakiJapan
  2. 2.Department of UrologyTohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical UniversitySendaiJapan
  3. 3.Department of Cardiology and NephrologyHirosaki University Graduate School of MedicineHirosakiJapan
  4. 4.Department of UrologyOyokyo Kidney Research InstituteHirosakiJapan
  5. 5.Department of Advanced Transplant and Regenerative MedicineHirosaki University Graduate School of MedicineHirosakiJapan

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