Differences in histological features and PD-L1 expression between sporadic microsatellite instability and Lynch-syndrome-associated disease in Japanese patients with colorectal cancer
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The field of immunotherapy has recently focused on cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). These cancers include both Lynch-syndrome-associated tumors, which are caused by mismatch repair (MMR) germline mutations, and sporadic MSI tumors, which are mainly attributed to MLH1 promoter methylation. The present study aimed to clarify differences in the histological and PD-L1 expression profiles between these two types of MSI cancers in Japanese patients.
Among 908 cases of colorectal cancer treated via surgical resection from 2008 to 2014, we identified 64 MSI cancers, including 36 sporadic MSI and 28 Lynch-syndrome-associated cancers, using a BRAF V600E mutation analysis and MLH1 methylation analysis. Of the latter subgroup, 21 (75%) harbored MMR germline mutations.
The following were more frequent with sporadic MSI than with Lynch syndrome associated cancers: poor differentiation (50.0 vs. 7.1%, P = 0.0002), especially solid type (30.6 vs. 3.6%, P = 0.0061); medullary morphology (19.4 and 0%, P = 0.015), Crohn-like lymphoid reaction (50.0 vs. 25.0%, P = 0.042), and PD-L1 expression (25.0 vs. 3.6%, P = 0.034). However, the groups did not differ in terms of the mean invasive front and intratumoral CD8-positive cell densities. In a logistic regression analysis, PD-L1 expression correlated with poor differentiation (odds ratio: 7.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.55–37.7, P = 0.012), but not with the difference between sporadic MSI cancer and Lynch-syndrome-associated cancer (odds ratio: 4.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.50–45.0, P = 0.176).
Therefore, compared with Lynch-syndrome-associated cancers, sporadic MSI cancers are more frequently solid, poorly differentiated medullary cancers that express PD-L1.
KeywordsMicrosatellite instability Colorectal cancer Lynch syndrome PD-L1
The authors would like to acknowledge all the patients and their families.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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