Crossed cerebellar diaschisis as an indicator of severe cerebral hyperperfusion after direct bypass for moyamoya disease

Abstract

Cerebral hyperperfusion (HP) complicates the postoperative course of patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) after direct revascularization surgery. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) has been considered to be rarely associated with HP after revascularization surgery. This study aimed to describe the clinical features and factors associated with CCD secondary to cerebral HP after revascularization surgery for MMD. We analyzed 150 consecutive hemispheres including 101 in adults and 49 in pediatric patients who underwent combined direct and indirect bypass for MMD. Using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), serial cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured immediately after the surgery and on postoperative days 2 and 7. Pre- and postoperative voxel-based analysis of SPECT findings was performed to compare the changes in regional CBF. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to test the effect of multiple variables on CCD. Asymptomatic and symptomatic HP was observed in 41.3% (62/150) and 16.7% (25/150) of the operated hemispheres, respectively. CCD was observed in 18.4% (16/87) of these hemispheres with radiological HP. Multivariate analysis revealed that the occurrence of CCD was significantly associated with symptomatic HP (p = 0.0015). Voxel-based analysis showed that the CBF increase in the operated frontal cortex, and the CBF reduction in the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere on day 7 were significantly larger in symptomatic HP than in asymptomatic HP (median 11.3% vs 7.5%; − 6.0% vs − 1.7%, respectively). CCD secondary to postoperative HP is more common than anticipated in MMD. CCD could potentially be used as an indicator of severe postoperative HP in patients with MMD.

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Correspondence to Haruto Uchino.

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Hokkaido University Hospital ethical review board approval (IRB#015-0086) was received before the study. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Uchino, H., Kazumata, K., Ito, M. et al. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis as an indicator of severe cerebral hyperperfusion after direct bypass for moyamoya disease. Neurosurg Rev 44, 599–605 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10143-020-01265-8

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Keywords

  • Bypass
  • Crossed cerebellar diaschisis
  • Hyperperfusion
  • Moyamoya disease