Risk factors for decompressive craniectomy after endovascular treatment in acute ischemic stroke

Abstract

Endovascular treatment (EVT) is safe and effective for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by large artery occlusion in the anterior circulation. However, some patients require decompressive craniectomy (DC), despite having undergone a timely EVT. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for subsequent DC after EVT. This retrospective cohort study comprised 138 patients who received EVT between April 2015 and June 2019 at our center. The need for subsequent DC was defined as cerebral edema or/and hemorrhagic transformation caused by large ischemic infarction, with a ≥ 5-mm midline shift and clinical deterioration after EVT. The relationship between risk factors and DC after EVT was assessed via univariate and multivariable logistic regression. Thirty (21.7%) patients required DC. These patients tended to have atrial fibrillation (P = 0.037), sedation (P = 0.049), mechanical ventilation (P = 0.008), poorer collateral circulation (P = 0.003), a higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (P < 0.001), heavier thrombus burden (P < 0.001), a lower baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) (P < 0.001), and unsuccessful recanalization (P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, higher baseline NIHSS score [odds ratio (OR), 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.32], heavier thrombus burden [OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.02–1.79], baseline ASPECTS ≤ 8 [OR, 7.41; 95% CI, 2.43–22.66], and unsuccessful recanalization [OR, 7.49; 95% CI, 2.13–26.36] were independent risk factors for DC after EVT. DC remains an essential treatment for some AIS patients after EVT, especially those with higher baseline NIHSS scores, heavier thrombus burden, baseline ASPECTS ≤ 8, and unsuccessful recanalization.

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Funding

This paper was supported by the Clinical Research Program of Shantou Central Hospital.

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Correspondence to Haixiong Xu or Chuwei Cai.

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This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shantou Central Hospital (2019-001).

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Peng, G., Huang, C., Chen, W. et al. Risk factors for decompressive craniectomy after endovascular treatment in acute ischemic stroke. Neurosurg Rev 43, 1357–1364 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10143-019-01167-4

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Keywords

  • Artery occlusion
  • Thrombectomy
  • Stroke
  • Malignant MCA infarction
  • Decompressive craniectomy