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Marine Biotechnology

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 269–281 | Cite as

Bioconversion of Chitin to Bioactive Chitooligosaccharides: Amelioration and Coastal Pollution Reduction by Microbial Resources

  • Manish Kumar
  • Amandeep Brar
  • V. Vivekanand
  • Nidhi Pareek
Review Article

Abstract

Chitin-metabolizing products are of high industrial relevance in current scenario due to their wide biological applications, relatively lower cost, greater abundance, and sustainable supply. Chitooligosaccharides have remarkably wide spectrum of applications in therapeutics such as antitumor agents, immunomodulators, drug delivery, gene therapy, wound dressings, as chitinase inhibitors to prevent malaria. Hypocholesterolemic and antimicrobial activities of chitooligosaccharides make them a molecule of choice for food industry, and their functional profile depends on the physicochemical characteristics. Recently, chitin-based nanomaterials are also gaining tremendous importance in biomedical and agricultural applications. Crystallinity and insolubility of chitin imposes a major hurdle in the way of polymer utilization. Chemical production processes are known to produce chitooligosaccharides with variable degree of polymerization and properties along with ecological concerns. Biological production routes mainly involve chitinases, chitosanases, and chitin-binding proteins. Development of bio-catalytic production routes for chitin will not only enhance the production of commercially viable chitooligosaccharides with defined molecular properties but will also provide a means to combat marine pollution with value addition.

Keywords

Chitooligosaccharides Chitinase Chitosanase Chitin-binding protein Nanobiotechnology Application 

Notes

Funding Information

The authors are thankful to Department of Biotechnology and Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, for financial support.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manish Kumar
    • 1
  • Amandeep Brar
    • 1
  • V. Vivekanand
    • 2
  • Nidhi Pareek
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, School of Life SciencesCentral University of Rajasthan BandarsindriAjmerIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Energy and EnvironmentMalaviya National Institute of TechnologyJaipurIndia

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