Advertisement

Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 847–857 | Cite as

The impact of invasive aquatic plants on ecosystem services and human well-being in Wular Lake, India

  • Reuben P. Keller
  • Ather Masoodi
  • Ross T. Shackleton
Original Article

Abstract

Alien invasive species cause significant impacts on ecosystems and economies, but the impacts on human well-being and livelihoods are less well known. Negative impacts can be particularly severe when caused by floating aquatic plants, which can reduce access to freshwater for extraction and navigation, reduce the harvest of fish and other resources, and change water cycling and chemistry. This paper reviews and discusses some of these impacts globally and then concentrates on the case study of Wular Lake, India. Wular is the largest freshwater lake in Jammu and Kashmir state and is highly important for local livelihoods through the provision of a range of services, including fish and edible aquatic plants, and water to local communities. The supply of these services has decreased due to a long history of environmental degradation, and recent invasions by the floating plants Azolla cristata and Alternanthera philoxerodies (alligator weed) have further impacted human well-being. Here, we review the published literature about these invasions, present information from interviews with locals living near Wular Lake, and review the global literature about invasive floating plant species to assess the present and predict the future impacts of these species. We find that the implications of these invasions for livelihoods reliant on lake resources and services provide good justification for management efforts. We discuss some options and challenges to such a management program.

Keywords

Alligator weed Alternanthera philoxeroides Azolla cristata Biological invasions Ecosystem services Kashmir Livelihoods, poverty 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Reana Thomas for her work interviewing locals in Kashmir. Two anonymous reviewers provided comments and suggestions that helped us to greatly improve the manuscript.

References

  1. Aloo P, Ojwang W, Omondi R, Njiru MN, Oyugi D (2013) A review of the impacts of invasive aquatic weeds on the biodiversity of some tropical water bodies with special reference to Lake Victoria (Kenya). Biodivers J 4:471–482Google Scholar
  2. AWC (Australian Weeds Committee) (2010) Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides Griseb.) strategic plan 2012–17. Weeds of National Significance, Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhat AB, Pandit AK (2014) Surface water quality assessment of Wular Lake, a Ramsar site in Kashmir Himalaya, using discriminant analysis and WQI. J Ecosyst 2014:724728.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/724728 Google Scholar
  4. Boyd CE (1987) Evapotranspiration/evaporation (E/Eo) ratios for aquatic plants. J Aquat Plant Manag 25:1–3Google Scholar
  5. Brundu G (2015) Plant invaders in European and Mediterranean inland waters: profiles, distribution, and threats. Hydrobiologia 746:61–79.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-014-1910-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brundu G, Stinca A, Angius L, Bonanomi G, Celesti-Grapow L, D’Auria G, Griffo R, Migliozzi A, Motti R, Spingo P (2012) Pistia stratiotes L and Eichhornia crassippes (Mart.) Solms.: emerging invasive alien hydrophytes in Campania and Sardinia (Italy). Bull OEPP/EPPO Bull 42:568–579.  https://doi.org/10.1111/epp.12004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brundu GM, Azzella M, Blasi C, Camarda I, Iberite M, Celesti-Grapow L (2013) The silent invasion of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. in Italy. Plant Biosyst 147:1120–1127.  https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2013.861536 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Charles H, Dukes JS (2007) Impacts of invasive species on ecosystem services. In: Nentwig W (ed) Biological invasions, ecological studies, vol 193. Springer, Berlin, pp 217–237.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-36920-2_13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coetzee JA, Jones RW, Hill MP (2014) Water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae), reduces benthic macroinvertebrate diversity in a protected subtropical lake in South Africa. Biodivers Conserv 23:1319–1330.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-014-0667-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. DES (Directorate of Economics and Statistics) (2014) Economic Survey J&K 2013–14. Government of Jammu and Kashmir, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  11. Eiswerth ME, Sg D, Johnson WS (2000) Potential environmental impacts and economic damages of Eusrasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) in Western Nevada and Northeastern California. Weed Technol 14:511–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gherardi F (2007) Biological invasions in inland waters: an overview. In: Gherardi F (ed) Biological invaders in inland waters: profiles, distribution, and threats. Springer, Netherlands, pp 3–25.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-6029-8_1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hill MP, McConnachie AJ, Byrne MJ (2008) Azolla filiculoides Lamarck (Pteridophyta: Azollaceae) control in South Africa: a 10-year review. In: Julien MH, Sforza R, Bon MC, Evans HC, Hatcher PE, Hinz HL, Rector BG (eds) Proceedings of the XII International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 558–560.  https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845935061.0558 Google Scholar
  14. Holm LG, Weldon LW, Blackburn RD (1969) Aquatic weeds. Science 166:699–709.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.166.3906.699 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Howard GW, Harley KLS (1998) How do floating aquatic weeds affect wetland conservation and development? How can these effects be minimised. Wetl Ecol Manag 5:215–225.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008209207736 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) (2010) National Wetlands Atlas: Jammu and Kashmir, Ahmedabad, India. Ministry of Environment and Forests, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  17. Kasulo V (2000) The impact of invasive species in African lakes. In: Perrings C, Williamson M, Dalmazzone S (eds) The economics of biological invasions. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 183–207.  https://doi.org/10.4337/9781781008645.00019 Google Scholar
  18. Kull CA, Shackleton CM, Cunningham P, Ducatillon C, Dufour-Dror J, Esler KJ, Friday JB, Gouveia AC, Griffin AR, MArchante E, Midgley SJ, Pauchard A, Rangan H, Richardson DM, Rinaudo T, Tassin J, Urgenson LS, von Maltitz GP, Zenni RD, Zylstra MJ (2011) Adoption, use and perception of Australian acacias around the world. Divers Distrib 17:822–839.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00783.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kumar R, Horwitz P, Milton GR, Sellamuttu SS, Buckton ST, Davidson NC, Pattnaik AK, Zavagli M, Baker C (2011) Assessing wetland ecosystem services and poverty interlinkages: a general framework and case study. Hydrol Sci J 56:1602–1621.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2011.631496 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kundangar MRD, Sarwar SG, Shah MA (1992) Ecology and conservation of wetland of Wular Lake (Kashmir). Final report submitted to the Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of IndiaGoogle Scholar
  21. Langeland KA (1996) Hydrilla verticillata (L.F.) Royle (Hydrocharitaceae), “the perfect aquatic weed”. Castanea 61:293–204 http://www.jstor.org/stable/4033682 Google Scholar
  22. Le Maitre DC, Gaertner M, Marchante E, Ens E, Holmes PM, Pauchard A, O’Farrel PJ, Rogers AM, Blanchard R, Blignaut J, Richardson DM (2011) Impacts of invasive Australian acacias: implications for management and restoration. Divers Distrib 17:1015–1029.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00816.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. MacDougall AS, Turkington R (2005) Are invasive species the drivers or passengers of change in degraded ecosystems? Ecology 81:42–55.  https://doi.org/10.1890/04-0669 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. MacIsaac HJ, Tedla RA, Ricciardi A. 2011. Patterns and rate of growth of studies in invasion ecology. Pages 51–60 in Richardson DM, ed. Fifty years of invasion biology: the legacy of Charles Elton. Wiley-Blackwell. Hoboken  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444329988.ch5 Google Scholar
  25. Maheshwari JK (1965) Alligator weed in Indian lakes. Nature 205:1270.  https://doi.org/10.1038/2061270a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Marais C, Wannenburgh AM (2008) Restoration of water resources (natural capital) through the clearing of invasive alien plants from riparian areas in South Africa—costs and water benefits. S Afr J Bot 74:526–537.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2008.01.175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Masoodi A, Khan FA (2012a) A new record to the invasive alien Flora of India—Azolla cristata. Natl Acad Sci Lett 35:493–495.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40009-012-0084-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Masoodi A, Khan FA (2012b) Invasion of alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) in Wular Lake, Kashmir, India. Aquat Invasions 7:143–146.  https://doi.org/10.3391/ai.2012.7.1.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Masoodi A, Anand S, Fareed AK, Gyan PS (2013) Predicting the spread of alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) in Wular Lake, India: a mathematical approach. Ecol Model 263:119–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2013.04.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McDougall K, Khuroo AA, Loope LL, Parks CG, Pauchard A, Reshi ZA, Rushworth I, Kueffer C (2011) Plant invasions in mountains: global lessons for better management. Mt Res Dev 31:380–387.  https://doi.org/10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-11-00082.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mir SS, Pandit AK (2008) Macrophytic features of Wular Lake (Ramsar Site) in Kashmir. Journal of Research and. Development 8:1–11Google Scholar
  32. Mushtaq F, Pandey AC (2014) Assessment of land use/land cover dynamics vis-à-vis hydrometeorological variability in Wular Lake environs Kashmir Valley, India using multitemporal satellite data. Arab J Geosci 7:4707–4715.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-013-1092-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nuñez MA, Pauchard A (2010) Biological invasions in developing and developed countries: does one model fit all? Biol Invasions 12:707–714.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-009-9517-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. van Oosterhout E (2007) Alligator weed control manual. New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  35. Pejchar L, Mooney HA (2009) Invasive species, ecosystem services and human well-being. Trends Ecol Evol 24:497–504.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2009.03.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Perrings C (2007) Pests, pathogens and poverty: biological invasions and agricultural dependence. In: Kontoleon A, Pascual U, Swanson T (eds) Biodiversity economics: principles, methods and applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 133–165.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511551079.008 Google Scholar
  37. Pyšek P, Richardson DM, Pergl J, Jarošik V, Sixtová Z, Weber E (2008) Geographical and taxonomic biases in invasion ecology. Trends Ecol Evol 23:237–244.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2008.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rahmani AR (2012) Threatened birds of India—their conservation requirements. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  39. Ramsar (2008) COP10 Resolution X.15 Describing the ecological character of wetlands, and data needs and formats for core inventory: harmonized scientific and technical guidance. The Ramsar Convention Secretariat, Gland http://ramsar.rgis.ch/pdf/res/key_res_x_15_e.pdf Google Scholar
  40. Rodríguez JP, Beard Jr TD, Bennett EM, Cumming GS, Cork S, Agard J, Dobson AP, Peterson GD. 2006. Trade-offs across space, time, and ecosystem services. Ecol Soc 11: 28.  https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-01667-110128
  41. Shackleton CM, McGarry D, Fourie S, Gambiza J, Shackleton SE, Fabricius C (2007) Assessing the effects of invasive alien species on rural livelihoods: case examples and a framework from South Africa. Hum Ecol 35:113–127.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-006-9095-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shackleton RT, Le Maitre DC, Pasiecznik NM, Richardson DM (2014) Prosopis: a global assessment of the biogeography, benefits, impacts and management of one of the world’s worst woody invasive plant taxa. AoB Plants 6:plu027.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plu027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shackleton RT, Le Maitre DC, Richardson DM (2015) Stakeholder perceptions and practices regarding Prosopis (mesquite) invasion and management in South Africa. Ambio 44:569–581.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-014-0597-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shah JA, Pandit AK (2012) Physico-chemical characteristics of water in Wular Lake—a Ramsar site In Kashmir Himalaya. Int J Geol Earth Environ Sci 2:257–265Google Scholar
  45. Shah KA, Sumbul S, Andrabi SA (2010) A study on nutritional potential of aquatic plants. Vetscan 5:33–38Google Scholar
  46. Strayer DL (2010) Alien species in fresh waters; ecological effects, interactions with other stressors and prospects for the future. Freshw Biol 55:152–174.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.2009.02380.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Thomas PA, Room PM (1986) Successful control of the floating weed Salvinia molesta in Papua New Guinea: a useful biological invasion neutralizes a disastrous one. Environ Conserv 320:581–584.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892900036298 Google Scholar
  48. Turpie JK, Marais C, Blignaut JN (2008) The working for water programme: evolution of a payments for ecosystem services mechanism that addresses both poverty and ecosystem service delivery in South Africa. Ecol Econ 65:788–798.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.12.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Twongo T (1996) Growing impact of water hyacinth on near shore environments on Lakes Victoria and Kyonga (East Africa). In: Johnston TC, Odada EO (eds) The limnology, climatology and paleoclimatology of East African Lakes. Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, pp 633–642Google Scholar
  50. Villamagna A, Murphy B (2010) Ecological and socio-economic impacts of invasive water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): a review. Freshw Biol 55:282–298.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.2009.02294.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wetlands International (2007) Comprehensive Management Action Plan for Wular Lake, Kashmir. Prepared for the Department of Wildlife Protection. Government of Jammu and Kashmir by Wetlands International-South Asia, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  52. van Wilgen BW, Richardson DM (2014) Challenges and trade-offs in the management of invasive alien trees. Biol Invasions 16:721–734.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-013-0615-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. van Wilgen BW, Wannenburgh A (2016) Co-facilitating invasive species control, water conservation and poverty relief: achievements and challenges in South Africa’s Working for Water programme. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 19:7–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2015.08.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. van Wilgen BW, Forsyth GG, Le Maitre DC, Wannenburgh A, Kotze DF, van den Berg E, Henderson L (2012) An assessment of the effectiveness of a large, national-scale invasive alien plant control strategy in South Africa. Biol Conserv 148:28–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.12.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wilson JRU, Ajuonu O, Center TD, Hill MP, Julien MH, Katagira FF, Neuenschwander P, Njoka SW, Ogwang J, Reeder RH, Van T (2007) The decline of water hyacinth on Lake Victoria was due to biological control by Neochetia spp. Aquat Bot 87:90–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2006.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zaz S, Romshoo SA (2012) Assessing the geoindicators of land degradation in the Kashmir Himalayan Region, India. Nat Hazards 64:1219–1245.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-012-0293-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reuben P. Keller
    • 1
  • Ather Masoodi
    • 2
  • Ross T. Shackleton
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental SustainabilityLoyola University ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of BotanyGovernment Degree College BaramullaBaramullaIndia
  3. 3.Centre for Invasion Biology, Department of Botany and ZoologyStellenbosch UniversityMatielandSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations