Advertisement

Regional Environmental Change

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 385–396 | Cite as

Beyond ‘just’ flood risk management: the potential for—and limits to—alleviating flood disadvantage

  • Paul O’Hare
  • Iain White
Original Article

Abstract

The threat of flooding poses a considerable challenge for justice. Not only are more citizens becoming exposed to risk, but they are expected to play increasingly active roles in flood risk management. However, until recently, few efforts have charted broader understandings of disadvantage relating to flood risk exposure. Drawing upon social science scholarship that has long been sensitive to concerns related to justice, we deploy and develop the notion of flood disadvantage as a means to assess the challenges to more ‘just’ flood risk management. We contend that the concept of flood disadvantage offers a useful lens to appreciate the constraints of technical approaches to flood risk management, in particular, its limited ability to incorporate complex social elements such as how individuals have differing vulnerabilities and sensitivities to flooding and uneven abilities to engage with risk agendas. The notion highlights the compounding interactions between flooding and other social disadvantages across multiple public policy areas and scales. We argue a fuller acknowledgement of the socio-spatial-temporal dimensions of intersecting disadvantages can help sensitise technical risk analyses that tend to see people and communities as homogeneous entities in a given spatiality. In doing so we can better reveal why some individuals or communities are more vulnerable to disasters or are slower to recover than others. Finally, we outline the challenges in turning more ‘just’ flood risk management from an abstract notion into one that could inform future practice.

Keywords

Flood risk management Justice Vulnerability and sensitivity Flood disadvantage 

References

  1. Agyeman J (2005) Sustainable communities and the challenge of environmental justice. New York University Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Adger N, Paavola J, Huq S, Mace MJ (2006) Fairness in adaptation to climate change. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander (2001) The planner-prince: interdependence, rationalities and post-communicative practice. Planning Theory & Practice 2(3):311–324.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14649350120096848 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnstein S (1969) A ladder of citizen participation. Am Inst Plan J 35(4):216–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Begg C, Walker G, Kuhlicke C (2015) Localism and flood risk management in England: the creation of new inequalities? Environ Plan C: Gov Policy 33(4):685–702.  https://doi.org/10.1068/c12216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell J, Saunders MI, Leon JX, Mills M, Kythreotis A, Phinn S, Mumby PJ, Lovelock CE, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Morrison TH (2014) Maps, laws and planning policy: working with biophysical and spatial uncertainty in the case of sea level rise. Environ Sci Policy 44:247–257.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2014.07.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bichard E, Kazmierczak A (2012) Are homeowners willing to adapt to and mitigate the effects of climate change? Clim Chang 112:633–654.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0257-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bracken LJ, Oughton EA, Donaldson A, Cook B, Forrester J, Spray C, Cinderby S, Passmore D, Bisset N (2016) Flood risk management, an approach to managing cross-border hazards. Natural Hazards 82(2):217–240.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-016-2284-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brand & Gaffikan (2007) Collaborative planning in an uncollaborative world. Plan Theory 6(3):282–313.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1473095207082036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bullard R (1994) Unequal protection: environmental justice and communities of color. Sierra Club Books, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  11. Bullard R (1999) Dismantling environmental racism in the USA. Local Environ 4(1):5–19.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13549839908725577 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Butler C, Pidgeon N (2011) From ‘flood defence’ to ‘flood risk management’: exploring governance, responsibility, and blame. Environ Plan C 29(3):533–547.  https://doi.org/10.1068/c09181j CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Campbell H, Marshall R (2006) Towards justice in planning. Eur Plan Stud 14(2):239–252.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09654310500418192 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cooper JAG, McKenna J (2008) Social justice in coastal erosion management: the temporal and spatial dimensions. Geoforum 39(1):294–306.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2007.06.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. CRED (2009) Disaster data: A balanced perspective. CRED crunch, Centre for Research on the epidemiology of disasters (CRED), issue no. 17, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  16. Coaffee J, Lee P (2016) Urban resilience: planning for risk, crisis and uncertainty. Palgrave Macmillan, BasingstokeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Committee on Climate Change (2015) Progress in preparing for climate change: 2015 report to parliament, June 2015 Google Scholar
  18. Cutter SL (1996) Vulnerability to environmental hazards. Prog Hum Geogr 20(4):529–539.  https://doi.org/10.1177/030913259602000407 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cutter SL, Boruff BJ, Shirley WL (2003) Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. Soc Sci Q 84(2):242–261.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6237.8402002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) (2005) Making space for water: taking forward a new government strategy for flood and coastal management in England. Defra, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Douglas I, Garvin S, Lawson N, Richards J, Tippett J, White I (2010) Urban pluvial flooding: a qualitative case study of cause, effect and nonstructural mitigation. J Flood Risk Manag 3:112–125.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-318X.2010.01061.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eden S, Donaldson A, Walker GP (2006) Green groups and grey areas: scientific boundary work, NGOs and environmental knowledge. Environ Plan A 38(6):1061–1076.  https://doi.org/10.1068/a37287 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elliott JR, Pais J (2006) Race, class, and hurricane Katrina: social differences in human responses to disaster. Soc Sci Res 35(2):295–321.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.02.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. EM-DAT database (2016) www.emdat.be/database [Accessed 14th July, 2016]
  25. England K, Knox K (2015) Targeting flood investment and policy to minimise flood disadvantage. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. European Commission (2007) Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks. Available at: http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32007L0060:EN:NOT (accessed 9th November 2013)
  27. Evans EP, Ashley R, Hall J, Penning-Rowsell E, Saul A, Sayers P, Thorne CR and Watkinson A (2004) Foresight. Future flooding. Scientific summary: volume 1—future risks and their drivers, DTI/pub 7183/2k/04/04/NP, URN 04/939 (London: Office of Science and Technology). Available at: www.gov.uk/government/publications/future-flooding
  28. Fainstein S (2011) The just city. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, United StatesGoogle Scholar
  29. Fainstein S (2015) Resilience and justice. Int J Urban Reg Res 39:157–167.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.12186 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fielding JL (2009) Double whammy? Are the most at risk the least aware? A study of environmental justice and awareness of flood risk in England and Wales. In Samuels, P. Et al. (eds) Flood Risk Management: Research and Practice, pp. 965–72Google Scholar
  31. Fielding J, Burningham K (2005) Environmental inequality and flood hazard. Local Environ 10(4):379–395.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13549830500160875 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gustafson S (2015) Maps and contradictions: urban political ecology and cartographic expertise in southern Appalachia. Geoforum 60:143–152.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.01.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Habermas J (1976) Legitimation crisis. Heinemann Educational, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Habermas J (1984) The theory of communicative action: vol.1—reason and the rationalization of society. Polity Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  35. Hall J, Solomatine D (2008) A framework for uncertainty analysis in flood risk management decisions. Int J River Basin Manag 6(2):85–98.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15715124.2008.9635339 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Harley JB (1989) Deconstructing the map. Cartographica 26:1–20.  https://doi.org/10.3138/E635-7827-1757-9T53 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harvey D (1996) Justice, nature and the geography of difference. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  38. Haughton G, Bankoff G, Coulthard TJ (2015) In search of ‘lost’ knowledge and outsourced expertise in flood risk management. Trans Inst Br Geogr 40:375–386.  https://doi.org/10.1111/tran.12082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Haughton G and White I (2016) Groundhog day: the great floods of 2015, Town and Country Planning Journal, March, 134–137Google Scholar
  40. Healey P (1997) Collaborative planning: shaping places in fragmented societies. Palgrave, BasingstokeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Houston D, Werritty A, Bassett D, Geddes A, Hoolachan A, McMillan M (2011) Pluvial (rain-related) flooding in urban areas: the invisible hazard. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Howe J, White I (2002) The geography of the autumn 2000 floods in the UK. Geogr: An Int J 87(2):116–125.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.01.018 Google Scholar
  43. Huxley M, Yiftachel O (2000) New paradigm or old myopia? Unsettling the communicative turn in planning theory. J Plan Educ Res 19(4):333–342.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456X0001900402 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Innes J (1995) Planning theory’s emerging paradigm: communicative action and interactive practice. J Plan Educ Res 14(3):183–189.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0739456X9501400307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. IPCC. (2014) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. IPCC. Available at: http://www.Ipcc.Ch/report/ar5/wg2/ (accessed 2nd June 2016)
  46. Jasanoff S (ed) (2004) States of knowledge: the coproduction of science and social order. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnson C, Tunstall S, Penning-Rowsell E (2005) Floods as catalysts for policy change: historical lessons from England and Wales. Int J Water Resour Dev 21:561–575.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07900620500258133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson C, Penning-Rowsell E, Parker D (2007) Natural and imposed injustices: the challenges in implementing ‘fair’ flood risk management policy in England. Geogr J 173(4):374–390.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4959.2007.00256.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Johnson C, Priest S (2008) Flood risk management in England: a changing landscape of risk responsibility? Int J Water Resour Dev 24(4):513–525.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07900620801923146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kazmierczak A, Cavan G (2011) Surface water flooding risk to urban communities: analysis of vulnerability, hazard and exposure. Landsc Urban Plan 103(2):185–197.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kazmierczak A, Cavan G, Connelly A, Lindley S (2015) Mapping flood disadvantage in Scotland 2015. The Scottish Government, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  52. Kitchin R (2014) From mathematical to post-representational understandings of cartography. Progress In Human Geography, intro to special e-collection, pp 1–7 doi:  https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132514562946
  53. Klein N (2007) The shock doctrine: the rise of disaster capitalism. Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  54. Krellenberg K, Welz J, Link F (2016) Urban vulnerability and the contribution of socio-environmental fragmentation: Theoretical and methodological pathways. Prog Hum Geogr 41(4):408–431.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132516645959
  55. Kuklicke C and Demeritt D (2016) Adaptive and risk-based approaches to climate change and the management of uncertainty and institutional risk: the case of future flooding in England. Global Environ Change 37 56-68. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.01.007
  56. Landström C, Whatmore SJ, Lane SN, Odoni NA, Ward N, Bradley S (2011) Co-producing flood risk knowledge: redistributing expertise in critical ‘participatory modelling’. Environ Plan A 43(7):1617–1633.  https://doi.org/10.1068/a43482 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lane SN (2014) Acting, predicting and intervening in a socio-hydrological world, Hydrology and Earth Systems Sciences, 18, 927–952. doi:  https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-18-927-2014
  58. Lane SN, Odoni N, Landström C, Whatmore SJ, Ward N, Bradley S (2011) Doing flood risk science differently: an experiment in radical scientific method. Trans Inst Br Geogr 2011(36):15–36.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-5661.2010.00410.x
  59. Lindley S, O’Neill J, Kandeh J, Lawson N, Christian R, O’Neill M (2011) Climate change, justice and vulnerability. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. Mitchell G, Dorling D (2003) An environmental justice analysis of British air quality. Environ Plan A 35(5):909–929.  https://doi.org/10.1068/a35240 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ministry of Housing and Local Government (1969) People and Planning. Report of the Committee on Public Participation in Planning [The Skeffington Report]. London: HMSOGoogle Scholar
  62. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management (2006) Spatial Planning Key Decision ‘Room for the River’. Available at: http://www.ruimtevoorderivier.nl (accessed 15th December 2016)
  63. O’Brien K, Hayward B, Berkes F (2009) Rethinking social contracts: building resilience in a changing climate. Ecol Soc 14(2):12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. O’Hare P, White I, Connelly A (2015) Insurance as maladaptation: Resilience and the 'business as usual' paradox. Environ Plan C 1-19.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0263774X15602022
  65. O’Hare P, White I, Connelly A (2016), Insurance as maladaptation: resilience and the ‘business as usual’ paradox, Environ Plan C: Gov Policy 34(6), pp.1175–1193.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0263774X15602022
  66. O’Neill J (2001) Representing people, representing nature, representing the world. Environ Plan C: Gov Policy 19:483–500.  https://doi.org/10.1068/c12s CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. O’Neill J, O’Neill M (2012) Social justice and the future of flood insurance. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, YorkGoogle Scholar
  68. Pahl-Wostl (2009) A conceptual framework for analysing adaptive capacity and multi-level learning processes in resource governance regimes. Glob Environ Chang 19(3):354–365.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Penning-Rowsell E, Johnson C (2015) The ebb and flow of power: British flood risk management and the politics of scale. Geoforum 62:131–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2015.03.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Penning-Rowsell E, Pardoe J (2012) Who benefits and who loses from flood risk reduction? Environ Plan C: Gov Policy 30(3):448–466.  https://doi.org/10.1068/c10208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pitt Review (2008) Learning Lessons from the 2007 Floods Available at: http:// webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100807034701/http:/archive.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/pittreview/_/media/assets/www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/flooding_review/pitt_review_full%20pdf.pdf (accessed 12 July 2013)
  72. Porter J, Demeritt D (2012) Flood risk management, mapping, and planning: the institutional politics of decision support in England. Environ Plan A:2539–2378.  https://doi.org/10.1068/a44660
  73. Preston BL, Yuen EJ, Westaway RM (2011) Putting vulnerability to climate change on the map: a review of approaches, benefits and risks. Sustain Sci 6(2):177–202.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-011-0129-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Priest SJ, Clark MJ, Treby EJ (2005) Flood insurance: the challenge of the uninsured. Area 37(3):295–302.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4762.2005.00633.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Robson B (1999) Vision and reality: urban social policy. In: Cullingworth JB (ed) British planning: 50 years of urban and regional policy. Athlone Press, London, pp 168–183Google Scholar
  76. Ruimte voor de Rivier (2012) Available at: http://www.ruimtevoorderivier.nl/meta-navigatie/english/ publications/ (accessed 15th December 2016)
  77. Sager T (1994) Communicative planning theory. Avebury, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  78. Scott M, White I, Kuhlicke C, Steinführer A, Sultana P, Thompson P, Minnery J, O’Neill E, Cooper J, Adamson M, Russell E (2013) Living with flood risk. Plan Theory Pract 14(1):103–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Smith N (2006) There’s no such thing as natural disaster. In: Understanding Katrina: perspectives from the social sciences. Social Sciences Research Council, Brooklyn [http://understandingkatrina.ssrc.org/Smith/]Google Scholar
  80. Stephens, C., Bullock, S. & Scott, A., (2001) Environmental justice—rights and means to a healthy environment for all. ESRCGoogle Scholar
  81. Stern N (2007) The economics of climate change: the stern review. Cambridge University press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tapsell SM, Penning-Rowsell EC, Tunstall SM, Wilson TL (2002) Vulnerability to flooding: health and social dimensions. Phil Trans R Soc A 360:1511–1525.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2002.1013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Thaler T, Priest S (2014) Partnership funding in flood risk management: new localism debate and policy in England. Area 46:418–425.  https://doi.org/10.1111/area.12135 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Thaler T, Hartmann T (2016) Justice and flood risk management: reflecting on different approaches to distribute and allocate flood risk management in Europe. Nat Hazards 83(1):129–147.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-016-2305-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Thaler T, Levin-Keitel M (2016) Multi-level stakeholder engagement in flood risk management—a question of roles and power: lessons from England. Environ Sci Policy 55(1):292–301.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2015.04.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Thieken AH, Muller M, Kreibich H, Merz B (2005) Flood damage and influencing factors: new insights from the August 2002 flood in Germany. Water Resour Res 41Google Scholar
  87. Tewdwr-Jones M, Allmendinger P (1998) Deconstructing communicative rationality: a critique of Habermasian collaborative planning. Environ Plan A 30(11):1975–1989.  https://doi.org/10.1068/a301975 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vardoulakis S, Heaviside C (2012) Health effects of climate change in the UK 2012. Health Protection Agency, LondonGoogle Scholar
  89. Walker G, Fairburn J and Smith G, (2003) Environmental quality and social deprivation. R&D Technical Report E2-067/1/TR. Bristol: Environment AgencyGoogle Scholar
  90. Walker G, Burningham K (2011) Flood risk, vulnerability and environmental justice: evidence and evaluation. Critical Social Policy 31(2):216–240.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0261018310396149 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Walker G (2012) Environmental justice: concepts, evidence and politics, London: RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  92. Wehn, U., Rusca, M., Evers, J., Lanfranchi, V. (2015) Participation in flood risk management and the potential of citizen observatories: a governance analysis. Environ Sci Policy 48, 225–236 doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2014.12.017
  93. Werritty A, Houston D, Ball T, Tavendale, A. and Black, A. (2007) Exploring the social impacts of flood risk and flooding in Scotland. Report for Scottish ExecutiveGoogle Scholar
  94. White I (2010) Water and the city: risk, resilience and planning for a sustainable future. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  95. White I (2013) The more we know, the more we don’t know: reflections on a decade of planning, flood risk management and false precision. Plan Theory Pract 14(1):106–114.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2012.761904 Google Scholar
  96. White I (2015) Environmental planning in context. Palgrave MacMillan: BasingstokeGoogle Scholar
  97. White I, Alarcon A (2009) Planning policy, sustainable drainage and surface water management: a case study of Greater Manchester, UK. Built Environ 35(4):516–530.  https://doi.org/10.2148/benv.35.4.516 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. White I, Haughton G (2017) Risky times: hazard management and the tyranny of the present. Int J Disaster Risk Reduction 22:412–419.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.01.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. White I, Howe J (2002) Flooding and the role of planning in England and Wales: a critical review. J Environ Plan Manag 45(5):735–745.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0964056022000013093 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. White I, Kingston R, Barker A (2010) Participatory geographic information systems and public engagement within flood risk management. J Flood Risk Manag 3:337–346.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2014.12.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. White I, O’Hare P (2014) From rhetoric to reality: which resilience, why resilience, and whose resilience in spatial planning? Environ Plan C: Gov Policy 32(5):934–950.  https://doi.org/10.1068/c12117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. White I, Connelly A, Garvin S, Lawson N, O’Hare P (2016) Flood resilience technology in Europe: identifying barriers and co-producing best practice. J Flood Risk Manag.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jfr3.12239
  103. Whittle R, Medd W, Deeming H, Kashefi E, Mort M, Twigger-Ross C, Walker G and Watson N (2010) After the rain—learning the lessons from flood recovery in Hull, final report for ‘flood, vulnerability and urban resilience: a real-time study of local recovery following the floods of June 2007 in Hull’. Lancaster: Lancaster UniversityGoogle Scholar
  104. Wolff J, de Shalit A (2007) Disadvantage. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Young IM (1990) Justice and the politics of difference. Princeton, Princeton University PressGoogle Scholar
  106. Zevenbergen C, Cashman A, Evelpidou N, Pasche E, Garvin S, Ashley R (2010) Urban flood management. CRC Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  107. Zsamboky M, Fernandez-Bilbao A, Smith D, Knight J, Allan J (2011) Impacts of climate change on disadvantaged UK coastal communities. Joseph Rowntree Foundation, YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Manchester Metropolitan UniversityManchesterUK
  2. 2.University of WaikatoHamiltonNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations