Cognition, Technology & Work

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 69–85 | Cite as

Designing the interaction of automated vehicles with other traffic participants: design considerations based on human needs and expectations

  • Anna SchiebenEmail author
  • Marc Wilbrink
  • Carmen Kettwich
  • Ruth Madigan
  • Tyron Louw
  • Natasha Merat
Original Article


Automated vehicles (AV) are expected to be integrated into mixed traffic environments in the near future. As human road users have established elaborated interaction strategies to coordinate their actions among each other, one challenge that human factors experts and vehicle designers are facing today is how to design AVs in a way that they can safely and intuitively interact with other traffic participants. This paper presents design considerations that are intended to support AV designers in reducing the complexity of the design space. The design considerations are based on a literature review of common human–human interaction strategies. Four categories of information are derived for the design considerations: (1) information about vehicle driving mode; (2) information about AVs’ manoeuvres; (3) information about AVs’ perceptions of the environment; and (4) information about AVs’ cooperation capabilities. In this paper, we apply the four categories to analyse existing research studies of traffic participants’ needs during interactions with AVs and results of the CityMobil2 project. From the CityMobil2 project we present central results from face-to-face interviews, an onsite-survey and two focus groups. To further support the AV designers we describe and rate different design options to present the information of the four categories, including the design of the infrastructure, the vehicle shape, the vehicle manoeuvres and the external human–machine interface of the AV.


Automated vehicles Interaction with other traffic participants Design considerations Vulnerable road users External HMI 



The research presented in this paper has been partly funded in the CityMobil2 project by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under Grant Agreement No 314190.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.German Aerospace Center (DLR e.V.)Institute of Transportation SystemsBrunswickGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Transport StudiesUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK

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