For better evaluation of the efficacy of low-level laser therapy in treating painful diabetic neuropathy and in protecting nerve fiber damage, we conducted a study with type 1 diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. It is well known that diabetic peripheral neuropathy is the leading cause of pain in those individuals who suffer from diabetes. Despite the efficacy of insulin in controlling glucose level in blood, there is no effective treatment to prevent or reverse neuropathic damage for total pain relief.Male Wistar rats were divided into saline, vehicle, and treatment groups. A single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (85 mg/kg) was administered for the induction of diabetes. The von Frey filaments were used to assess nociceptive thresholds (allodynia). Behavioral measurements were accessed 14, 28, 48, and 56 days after STZ administration. Rats were irradiated with GaAs Laser (Gallium Arsenide, Laserpulse, Ibramed Brazil) emitting a wavelength of 904 nm, an output power of 45 mWpk, beam spot size at target 0.13 cm2, a frequency of 9500 Hz, a pulse time 60 ns, and an energy density of 6,23 J/cm2.The application of four sessions of low-level laser therapy was sufficient to reverse allodynia and protect peripheral nerve damage in diabetic rats.The results of this study indicate that low-level laser therapy is feasible to treat painful diabetic condition in rats using this protocol. Although its efficacy in reversing painful stimuli and protecting nerve fibers from damage was demonstrated, this treatment protocol must be further evaluated in biochemical levels to confirm its biological effects.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Federation ID (2013) Diabetes Atlas; Available from: http://www.idf.org/diabetesatlas
Javed S, Petropoulos IN, Alam U, Malik RA (2015) Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. Ther Adv Chronic Dis 6:15–28
Jin HY, Lee KA, Song SK, Liu WJ, Choi JH, Song CH, Baek HS, Park TS (2012) Sulodexide prevents peripheral nerve damage in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Eur J Pharmacol 674:217–26
Yagihashi S, Mizukami H, Sugimoto K (2011) Mechanism of diabetic neuropathy: where are we now and where to go? J Diabetes Investig 2:18–32
Cermenati G, Abbiati F, Cermenati S, Brioschi E, Volonterio A, Cavaletti G, Saez E, De Fabiani E, Crestani M, Garcia-Segura LM, Melcangi RC, Caruso D, Mitro N (2012) Diabetes-induced myelin abnormalities are associated with an altered lipid pattern: protective effects of LXR activation. J Lipid Res 53:300–10
Azcoitia I, Leonelli E, Magnaghi V, Veiga S, Garcia-Segura LM, Melcangi RC (2003) Progesterone and its derivatives dihydroprogesterone and tetrahydroprogesterone reduce myelin fiber morphological abnormalities and myelin fiber loss in the sciatic nerve of aged rats. Neurobiol Aging 24:853–60
Veiga S, Leonelli E, Beelke M, Garcia-Segura LM, Melcangi RC (2006) Neuroactive steroids prevent peripheral myelin alterations induced by diabetes. Neurosci Lett 402:150–3
Services USDoHaH (2009) Diabetic neuropathies: the nerve damage of diabetes
Javed S, Alam U, Malik RA (2015) Treating diabetic neuropathy: present strategies and emerging solutions. Rev Diabet Stud 12:63–83
Kaur S, Pandhi P, Dutta P (2011) Painful diabetic neuropathy: an update. Ann Neurosci 18:168–75
Ribas ES, Paiva WS, Pinto NC, Yeng LT, Okada M, Fonoff ET, Chavantes MC, Teixeira MJ (2012) Use of low intensity laser treatment in neuropathic pain refractory to clinical treatment in amputation stumps. Int J Gen Med 5:739–42
Kingsley JD, Demchak T, Mathis R (2014) Low-level laser therapy as a treatment for chronic pain. Front Physiol 5:306
Passarella S (1989) He-Ne laser irradiation of isolated mitochondria. J Photochem Photobiol B 3:642–3
Yamamoto H OA IN, Kinoshita S (1988) Antinociceptive effects of laser irradiation of Hoku point in rats. Pain Clin
L-AL AC (199979–87) Beneficial effects of laser therapy in the early stages of rheumatoid arthritis onset. Laser Ther
Zimmermann M (1983) Ethical guidelines for investigations of experimental pain in conscious animals. Pain 16:109–10
Cheng Y, Kang H, Shen J, Hao H, Liu J, Guo Y, Mu Y, Han W (2015) Beta-cell regeneration from vimentin+/MafB+ cells after STZ-induced extreme beta-cell ablation. Sci Rep 5:11703
Araiza-Saldana CI, Pedraza-Priego EF, Torres-Lopez JE, Rocha-Gonzalez HI, Castaneda-Corral G, Hong-Chong E, Granados-Soto V (2015) Fosinopril prevents the development of tactile allodynia in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. Drug Dev Res 76:442–9
Ciena AP, de Almeida SR, Dias FJ, Bolina Cde S, Issa JP, Iyomasa MM, Ogawa K, Watanabe IS (2012) Fine structure of myotendinous junction between the anterior belly of the digastric muscle and intermediate tendon in adults rats. Micron 43:258–62
Watanabe I, Yamada E (1983) The fine structure of lamellated nerve endings found in the rat gingiva. Arch Histol Jpn 46:173–82
da Silva JT, Santos FM, Giardini AC, Martins Dde O, de Oliveira ME, Ciena AP, Gutierrez VP, Watanabe IS, Britto LR, Chacur M (2015) Neural mobilization promotes nerve regeneration by nerve growth factor and myelin protein zero increased after sciatic nerve injury. Growth Factors 33:8–13
Chaplan SR, Bach FW, Pogrel JW, Chung JM, Yaksh TL (1994) Quantitative assessment of tactile allodynia in the rat paw. J Neurosci Methods 53:55–63
de Oliveira MD, Martinez dos Santos F, Evany de Oliveira M, de Britto LR, Benedito Dias Lemos J, Chacur M (2013) Laser therapy and pain-related behavior after injury of the inferior alveolar nerve: possible involvement of neurotrophins. J Neurotrauma 30:480–6
Snedecor GW RS, FJ Rohlf (1946) Statistical methods biometry. Freeman & Co
Bingol U, Altan L, Yurtkuran M (2005) Low-power laser treatment for shoulder pain. Photomed Laser Surg 23:459–64
Venancio Rde A, Camparis CM, Lizarelli Rde F (2005) Low intensity laser therapy in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders: a double-blind study. J Oral Rehabil 32:800–7
Hanani M, Blum E, Liu S, Peng L, Liang S (2014) Satellite glial cells in dorsal root ganglia are activated in streptozotocin-treated rodents. J Cell Mol Med 18:2367–71
Hoybergs YM, Meert TF (2007) The effect of low-dose insulin on mechanical sensitivity and allodynia in type I diabetes neuropathy. Neurosci Lett 417:149–54
Rushton WA (1951) A theory of the effects of fibre size in medullated nerve. J Physiol 115:101–22
Huang Q, Chen Y, Gong N, Wang YX (2016) Methylglyoxal mediates streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathic pain via activation of the peripheral TRPA1 and Nav1.8 channels. Metabolism 65:463–74
All authors made substantial contributions to the following tasks of research: initial conception (Rocha, I.R.C; Martins, D.O. Chacur, M.); design (Rocha, I.R.C; Martins D.O., Chacur M); provision of resources (Chacur M); collection of data (Rocha, I.R.C; Rosa, S. Ciena A.P); analysis and interpretation of data (Rocha, I.R.C; Chacur M.); writing the first draft of the paper or important intellectual content (Rocha, I.R.C; Martins D.O., Chacur M.); and revision of the paper (Rocha, I.R.C; Martins D.O., Chacur M).
Ethics approval and consent to participate
All procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care Committee of the University of São Paulo (protocol number 123/2015) and performed in accordance with the guidelines for the ethical use of conscious animals in pain study published by the International Association for the Study of Pain.
Consent for publication
Availability of data and materials
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Rocha, I.R.C., Ciena, A.P., Rosa, A.S. et al. Photobiostimulation reverses allodynia and peripheral nerve damage in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes. Lasers Med Sci 32, 495–501 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-016-2140-3
- Diabetes mellitus
- Sciatic nerve
- Myelin sheath