An advanced decision support system for European disaster management: the feature of the skills taxonomy

  • Marion S. Rauner
  • Helmut Niessner
  • Steen Odd
  • Andrew Pope
  • Karen Neville
  • Sheila O’Riordan
  • Lisa Sasse
  • Kristina Tomic
Original Paper
  • 44 Downloads

Abstract

Mankind has faced a huge increase in severe natural and man-made disasters worldwide in the last few years. Emergency responders on a strategic, tactical, and operational level can be assisted by decision support systems (DSS) to enhance disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. Policy makers are in need of an advanced, resilient and integrated incident command and control systems for emergency responders that incorporates health care-related features. To address this need, a DSS was developed in the European Union (EU) project named Securing Health.Emergency.Learning.Planning (S-HELP). Improving the health care delivery process through health care-related DSS features, the identification of key emergency responders and their associated tasks performed in preparedness, response, and recovery-related interventions is absolutely necessary. Thus, we establish a skills taxonomy for the S-HELP DSS Toolset “Decision Making Module” to interlink key emergency interventions/tasks with main national emergency responders supported by international emergency responders with a special focus on the EU. Furthermore, we provide an overview of which key emergency interventions/tasks can be covered by EU Civil Protection Modules by incorporating availability, start of operation, self-sufficiency, and operation time. This skills taxonomy for the S-HELP DSS Toolset “Decision Making Module” improves the interoperability of emergency responders when they cope with major disasters such as mass flooding, chemical spills, and biological-hazards policy scenarios that impact on health care. In the future, operation research models related to fields such as humanitarian logistics or disease control could be incorporated into or benefit from the S-HELP DSS.

Keywords

Disaster management Decision support systems Skills taxonomy Emergency management interventions Emergency management responders EU Civil Protection Modules 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The skills taxonomy was developed for the Securing Health.Emergency.Learning.Planning (S-HELP) DSS in the EU-fp7-project (#607865). The S-HELP project was coordinated by the University College Cork, Ireland. The website can be found under: http://www.fp7-shelp.eu/. Leader of skills taxonomy was University of Vienna, Austria, while Lund University was responsible for the data transformation, modelling, and implementation under the supervision of University College Cork, Ireland. We are grateful to the reviewers for most valuable comments.

References

  1. African Union (2002) Protocol relating to the establishment of the peace and Security Council of the African Union. http://www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/treaties/7781-file-protocol_peace_and_security.pdf
  2. Alexander D (2003) Towards the development of standards in emergency management training and education. Disaster Prev Manag 12(2):113–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander D (2012) Principles of emergency planning and management, 6th edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen DK, Karanasios S, Norman A (2014) Information sharing and interoperability: the case of major incident management. Eur J Inf Syst 23(4):418–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Altay N, Green WG (2006) OR/MS research in disaster operations management. Eur J Oper Res 175(1):475–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson RM, May RM, Anderson B (1992) Infectious diseases of humans: dynamics and control, vol 28. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  7. Aringhieri R (2009) Composing medical crews with equity and efficiency. CEJOR 17(3):343–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Asplund J (1970) Om Undran Inför Samhället. Argos, Milton KeynesGoogle Scholar
  9. Austrian Federal Ministry of the Interior (2014) Staatliches Krisen- und Katastrophenschutzmanagement und grenzüberschreitende Kooperation. http://www.miles.ac.at/medien/SkFueKdo/WS14/Krisenmanagement%20BMI.pdf
  10. Austrian National Crisis and Disaster Protection Management (2007) Richtlinie für das Führen im Katastropheneinsatz. Austria, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  11. Bharosa N, Lee J, Janssen M (2010) Challenges and obstacles in sharing and coordinating information during multi-agency disaster response: propositions from field exercises. Inf Syst Front 12(1):49–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boin A, McConnell A (2007) Preparing for critical infrastructure breakdowns: the limits of crisis management and the need for resilience. J Contingencies Crisis Manag 15(1):50–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bundesamt für Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe (1999) Feuerwehr-Dienstvorschrift 100: Führung und Leitung im Einsatz. Bundesamt für Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  14. Burkart C, Nolz PC, Gutjahr WJ (2017) Modelling beneficiaries’ choice in disaster relief logistics. Ann Oper Res 256:41–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burkle FM, Greenough PG (2008) Impact of public health emergencies on modern disaster taxonomy, planning, and response. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2(3):192–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carver L, Turoff M (2007) Human-computer interaction: the human and computer as a team in emergency management information systems. Commun ACM 50(3):33–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caunhye AM, Nie X, Pokharel S (2012) Optimization models in emergency logistics: a literature review. Socioecon Plann Sci 46(1):4–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen JQ, Lee SM (2003) An exploratory cognitive DSS for strategic decision making. Decis Support Syst 36(2):147–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cioca M, Cioca LI (2010) Decision support systems used in disaster management. INTECH Open Access Publisher, RijekaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Comfort LK (2007) Crisis management in hindsight: cognition, communication, coordination, and control. Public Adm Rev 67:189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Comfort LK, Wukich C (2013) Developing decision making skills for uncertain conditions: the challenge of educating effective emergency managers. J Public Aff Educ 19:53–71Google Scholar
  22. Coppola DP (2011) Introduction to international disaster management, 2nd edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, BurlingthonGoogle Scholar
  23. Cutter SL (2003) GI science, disasters, and emergency management. Trans GIS 7(4):439–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dean MD, Nair SK (2014) Mass-casualty triage: distribution of victims to multiple hospitals using the SAVE model. Eur J Oper Res 238(1):363–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Digital Humanitarian Network, DHN (2014) Humanitarian decision makers taxonomy. http://digitalhumanitarians.com/content/decision-makers-needs
  26. Egli DS (2013) Beyond the storms: strengthening preparedness, response, & resilience in the 21st century. J Strat Secur 6(2):32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Elmasri R, Navathe S (2011) Fundamentals of database systems, 6th edn. Addison-Wesley, BostonGoogle Scholar
  28. European Commission, EC (2010a) Decision 2010/481/EU Annex II, Euraton. Off J Eur Union 7(9):2010Google Scholar
  29. European Commission, EC (2010b) Revised manual on EU emergency and crisis coordination. European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  30. European Commission, EC (2014a) Commission implementing decision of 16.10.2014 laying down rules for the implementation of Decision No 1313/2013/EU—Annex II-C (2014) 7489 final. European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  31. European Commission, EC (2014b) Emergency Response Coordination Centre (ERCC). http://ec.europa.eu
  32. European Parliament and the Council (2013) Decision No 1313/2013/EU. Off J Eur Union. 20.12.2013, L 347/924Google Scholar
  33. EU Skills Panorama (2015) Glossary. http://euskillspanorama.cedefop.europa.eu/Glossary
  34. Fan Y, French ML, Stading GL, Bethke S (2015) Disaster response: an examination of resource management in the early hours. J Appl Bus Econ 17(2):22Google Scholar
  35. Faulkner B (2001) Towards a framework for tourism disaster management. Tour Manag 22(2):135–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Federal Emergency Management Agency, FEMA (2015) Emergency and risk management case studies textbook, Chapter 9. https://training.fema.gov/HiEdu/docs/Chapter%209%20-%20International%20Dis.doc
  37. Finkelstein C (2015) Enterprise architecture for integration: rapid delivery methods and technologies, 3rd edn. Information Engineering Services Pty Ltd, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  38. FLOODsite (2007) Review report of operational flood management methods and modelsGoogle Scholar
  39. Galindo G, Batta R (2013) Review of recent developments in OR/MS research in disaster operations management. Eur J Oper Res 230(2):201–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ginter PM, Duncan WJ, Swayne LE (2013) Strategic management of health care organizations, 7th edn. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  41. Global Corps (2015) List of relief organizations. http://www.globalcorps.com/jobs/ngolist.pdf
  42. Guédria W, Naudet Y, Chen D (2015) Maturity model for enterprise interoperability. Enterp Inf Syst 9(1):1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gupta S, Starr M, Zanjirani Farahani R, Matinrad N (2016) Disaster management from a POM perspective: mapping a new domain. Prod Oper Manag 25(10):1611–1637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gutjahr WJ, Dzubur N (2016) Bi-objective bilevel optimization of distribution center locations considering user equilibria. Transp Res Part E Logist Transp Rev 85:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gutjahr WJ, Nolz PC (2016) Multicriteria optimization in humanitarian aid. Eur J Oper Res 252(2):351–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Heidenberger K, Roth M (1998) Taxonomies in the strategic management of health technology: the case of multiperiod compartmental HIV/AIDS policy models. Int J Technol Manage 15(3/4/5):336–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hoyos MC, Morales RS, Akhavan-Tabatabaei R (2015) OR models with stochastic components in disaster operations management: a literature survey. Comput Ind Eng 82:183–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. International Organization for Standardization, ISO (2011) ISO 22320 societal security—emergency management—requirements for incident response. http://www.iso.org/iso/home.htm
  49. International Organization for Standardization, ISO (2015a) ISO 22351 societal security—emergency management—message structure for exchange of information. http://www.iso.org/iso/home.htm
  50. International Organization for Standardization, ISO (2015b) Reaping the benefits of ISO 9001. http://www.iso.org/iso/home.htm
  51. Interoperable Delivery of European eGovernment Services to public Administrations, Businesses, and Citizens, IDABC (2004) European interoperability framework for pan-European eGovernment Services. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  52. Irish National Steering Group (2006) A framework for major emergency management. http://mem.ie/framework-documents/
  53. Jensen J, Thompson S (2016) The incident command system: a literature review. Disasters 40(1):158–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Johnson R (2000) GIS technology for disasters and emergency management. An ESRI white paperGoogle Scholar
  55. Kondaveti R, Ganz A (2009) Decision support system for resource allocation in disaster management. In: Engineering in medicine and biology society, 2009, EMBC 2009, annual international conference of the IEEE. IEEE, pp 3425–3428Google Scholar
  56. Kowalski-Trakofler KM, Vaught C, Scharf T (2003) Judgment and decision making under stress: an overview for emergency managers. Int J Emergency Manage 1(3):278–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kunz N, Reiner G (2012) A meta-analysis of humanitarian logistics research. J Humanit Logist Supply Chain Manag 2(2):116–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lawson B (2006) How designers think: the design process demystified. Routledge, Abingdon-on-ThamesGoogle Scholar
  59. Lee J, Bharosa N, Yang J, Janssen M, Rao HR (2011) Group value and intention to use—study of multi agency disaster management information systems for public safety. Decis Support Syst 50(2):404–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Leiras A, de Brito Jr I, Queiroz Peres E, Rejane Bertazzo T, Tsugunobu Yoshida Yoshizaki H (2014) Literature review of humanitarian logistics research: trends and challenges. J Humanit Logist Supply Chain Manag 4(1):95–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lettieri E, Masella C, Radaelli G (2009) Disaster management: findings from a systematic review. Disaster Prev Manag 18(2):117–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Manoj BS, Baker AH (2007) Communication challenges in emergency response. Commun ACM 50(3):51–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Manopiniwes W, Irohara T (2014) A review of relief supply chain optimization. Ind Eng Manag Syst 13(1):1–14Google Scholar
  64. Mendonça D, Jefferson T, Harrald J (2007) Collaborative adhocracies and mix-and-match technologies in emergency management. Commun ACM 50(3):44–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mills AF (2016) A simple yet effective decision support policy for mass-casualty triage. Eur J Oper Res 253(3):734–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Moeini M, Jemai Z, Sahin E (2015) Location and relocation problems in the context of the emergency medical service systems: a case study. CEJOR 23(3):641–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Neville K (2017) S-HELP DSS—modules, functions and benefits, bookletGoogle Scholar
  68. Neville KM, Doyle C, Mueller J, Sugrue A (2013) Supporting cross border emergency management decision-making. In: Proceedings of the 21st European conference on information systems, 33Google Scholar
  69. Niessner H, Rauner MS, Gutjahr WJ (2017) A dynamic simulation-optimization approach for managing mass casualty incidents. Oper Res Health Care.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orhc.2017.07.001 Google Scholar
  70. Noran O (2014) Collaborative disaster management: an interdisciplinary approach. Comput Ind 65(6):1032–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rake EL (2003) Emergency management and decision making on accident scenes: taxonomy, models and future research. Int J Emergency Manage 1(4):397–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rath S, Gendreau M, Gutjahr WJ (2016) Bi-objective stochastic programming models for determining depot locations in disaster relief operations. Int Trans Oper Res 23(6):997–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rauner M, Niessner H, Sasse L, Tomic K, Neville K, Pope A, O’Riordan S (2016) Decision support for strategic disaster management: First release of a wiki. In: Dawid H, Doerner KF, Feichtinger G, Kort PM, Seidl A (eds) Dynamic perspectives on managerial decision making. Springer, Berlin, pp 413–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Reznek M, Smith-Coggins R, Howard S, Kiran K, Harter P, Sowb Y, Gaba D, Krummel T (2003) Emergency medicine crisis resource management (EMCRM): pilot study of a simulation-based crisis management course for emergency medicine. Acad Emerg Med 10(4):386–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rimstad R, Braut GS (2015) Literature review on medical incident command. Prehosp Disaster Med 30(02):205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Salmon P, Stanton N, Jenkins D, Walker G (2011) Coordination during multi-agency emergency response: issues and solutions. Disaster Prev Manag 20(2):140–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schneeberger K, Doerner KF, Kurz A, Schilde M (2016) Ambulance location and relocation models in a crisis. CEJOR 24(1):1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schön DA (1983) The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  79. Scruton R (1979) The aesthetics of architecture. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  80. S-HELP (Securing Health.Emergency.Learning.Planning) (2013) Securing Health.Emergency.Learning.Planning, Project Proposal, FP7-SEC-2013-1, SEC-2013.4.1-4, University of Cork, IrelandGoogle Scholar
  81. Steen O, Pope A, Rauner M, Holmberg N, Woodworth S, O’Riordan S, Niessner N, Neville K (2016) A comprehensive decision support system for enhanced emergency decision management and training. In: International conference on information technology in disaster risk reduction. Springer, Chambridge, pp 183–197Google Scholar
  82. Steiner C, Nussbaumer A, Albert D (2015) A psychological framework modelling decision making in emergencies. In: European conference on information management and evaluation. Academic Conferences International Limited, p 206Google Scholar
  83. Sung I, Lee T (2016) Optimal allocation of emergency medical resources in a mass casualty incident: patient prioritization by column generation. Eur J Oper Res 252(2):623–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sutton J, Palen L, Shklovski I (2008) Backchannels on the front lines: emergent uses of social media in the 2007 southern California wildfires. In: Proceedings of the 5th international ISCRAM conference, Washington, DC, pp 624–632Google Scholar
  85. Tatham P, Spens K (2011) Towards a humanitarian logistics knowledge management system. Disaster Prev Manag 20(1):6–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Technical University of Graz, TUGraz (2014) Securing health emergency learning planning, S-H.E.L.P., collaborative project FP7-SEC-2013-1, Project no. 607865, Deliverable No. 2.3. Draft paper prototype user interfaces for effective cognitive processing during an emergencyGoogle Scholar
  87. Thomas A, Fritz L (2006) Disaster relief, inc. Harvard Bus Rev 84(11):114Google Scholar
  88. Tufekci S (1995) An integrated emergency management decision support system for hurricane emergencies. Saf Sci 20(1):39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Turoff M, White C, Plotnick L, Hiltz SR (2008) Dynamic emergency response management for large scale decision making in extreme events. In: Proceedings of the 5th international ISCRAM conference. ISCRAM, Washington, DC, USA, pp 462–470Google Scholar
  90. University of Lund (2016) Securing health emergency learning planning, S-H.E.L.P., Collaborative Project FP7-SEC-2013-1, Project no. 607865, Deliverable No. 4.4, Knowledge Management SystemGoogle Scholar
  91. University of Vienna (2014) Securing health emergency learning planning, S-H.E.L.P., Collaborative Project FP7-SEC-2013-1, Project no. 607865, Deliverable No. 2.1, Glossary of terms and definitions & common grounds and standards for interoperabilityGoogle Scholar
  92. University of Vienna (2015a) Securing health emergency learning planning, S-H.E.L.P., Collaborative Project FP7-SEC-2013-1, Project no. 607865, Deliverable No. 2.4, Draft Skills Taxonomy TemplateGoogle Scholar
  93. University of Vienna (2015b) Securing health emergency learning planning, S-H.E.L.P., collaborative project FP7-SEC-2013-1, Project no. 607865, Deliverable No. 2.7, Draft Rescources Taxonomy TemplateGoogle Scholar
  94. University of Vienna (2015c) Securing health emergency learning planning, S-H.E.L.P., Collaborative Project FP7-SEC-2013-1, Project no. 607865, Deliverable No. 2.8, Draft of the S-HELP Interoperability ModelGoogle Scholar
  95. University of Vienna (2016) Securing health emergency learning planning, S-H.E.L.P., Collaborative Project FP7-SEC-2013-1, Project no. 607865, Deliverable No. 2.11, S-HELP Interoperability StandardGoogle Scholar
  96. Van Wassenhove LN (2006) Humanitarian aid logistics: supply chain management in high gear. J Oper Res Soc 57(5):475–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Veil SR, Buehner T, Palenchar MJ (2011) A work-in-process literature review: incorporating social media in risk and crisis communication. J Contingencies Crisis Manag 19(2):110–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vernadat FB (2003) Enterprise modelling and integration. Springer, Berlin, pp 25–33Google Scholar
  99. Vynnycky E, White R (2010) An introduction to infectious disease modelling. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  100. Waugh WL, Streib G (2006) Collaboration and leadership for effective emergency management. Public Adm Rev 66(s1):131–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Whybark DC (2015) Co-creation of improved quality in disaster response and recovery. Int J Q Innov 1(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zachman JA (1999) A framework for information systems architecture. IBM Syst J 38(2–3):454–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Business, Economics, and StatisticsUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of Informatics, School of Economics and ManagementLund UniversityLundSweden
  3. 3.Centre for Resilience and Business Continuity (CRBC), Business Information Systems, Cork University Business SchoolUniversity College CorkCorkIreland

Personalised recommendations