E10 is a blend of 10% bioethanol and 90% gasoline that can be used in the engines of most cars without causing damage. Currently for the E10 blend, Jamaica imports gasoline from Trinidad & Tobago and bioethanol from Brazil because the bioethanol production in Jamaica is at an early stage. However, the country has great potential for bioethanol production. In order to assess the environmental and economic feasibility of bioethanol in Jamaica, this paper presents an economic and environmental life cycle assessment for a case study in Jamaica in two different scenarios. The Baseline Scenario represents the use of E10 in the current conditions in which bioethanol comes from Brazil and gasoline from Trinidad & Tobago. Scenario I represents the use of E10 with bioethanol from Jamaica and gasoline from Trinidad & Tobago. The comparative environmental life cycle assessment revealed that the Baseline Scenario had better results than Scenario I in ten environmental categories. The economic assessment results in Scenario I were 7% higher than in the Baseline Scenario. Hence, the current context (Baseline Scenario) was identified as the scenario with the best economic performance. Therefore, the current situation in Jamaica (Baseline Scenario) scored better results than Scenario I from an environmental and an economical point of views. It is recommended to increase the bagasse cogeneration of Scenario I to lower the environmental impacts. To improve their productivity, it is necessary to improve the Jamaican sugar infrastructure by combining molasses and cane juice to produce bioethanol.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
LCI available in the Supplementary material.
Amorim HV, Lopes ML, de Castro Oliveira JV, Buckeridge MS, Goldman GH (2011) Scientific challenges of bioethanol production in Brazil. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 91(5):1267
Azapagic A, Stichnothe H (2011) Life cycle sustainability assessment of biofuels. Handbook of biofuels production. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 37–60
Ballesteros M, Manzanares P (2019) Liquid biofuels. The role of bioenergy in the bioeconomy. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 113–144
Basu P (2018) Biomass gasification, pyrolysis and torrefaction: practical design and theory. Academic Press, Cambridge
Caldeira-Pires A, Da Luz SM, Palma-Rojas S, Rodrigues TO, Silverio VC, Vilela F, Barbosa P, Alves AM (2013) Sustainability of the biorefinery industry for fuel production. Energies 6(1):329–350
Caldeira-Pires A, Benoist A, Da Luz SM, Silverio VC, Silveira CM, Machado FS (2018) Implications of removing straw from soil for bioenergy: an LCA of ethanol production using total sugarcane biomass. J Clean Prod 181:249–259
Castillo EF, Larrahondo JE, Gómez AL, Socarrás JI (2010) The Colombian experience in the production of bioethanol for transport use. Proc Int Soc Sugar Cane Technol 27:1–9
Chen B, Xiong R, Li H, Sun Q, Yang J (2019) Pathways for sustainable energy transition. J Clean Prod 228:1564–1571. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2019.04.372
Contreras AM, Rosa E, Pérez M, Van Langenhove H, Dewulf J (2009) Comparative life cycle assessment of four alternatives for using by-products of cane sugar production. J Clean Prod 17(8):772–779
Contreras-Lisperguer R, Batuecas E, Mayo C, Díaz R, Pérez FJ, Springer C (2018) Sustainability assessment of electricity cogeneration from sugarcane bagasse in Jamaica. J Clean Prod 200:390–401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.322
Council, W. E. (2016). World Energy Resources Bioenergy | 2016. Retrieved from https://www.worldenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/WEResources_Bioenergy_2016.pdf
de la Rúa Lope C, Lechón Y (2017) Life cycle assessment of biofuel production. In: Riazi MR, Chiaramonti D (eds) Biofuels production and processing technology. CRC Press, pp 587–612
de Luca AI, Iofrida N, Leskinen P, Stillitano T, Falcone G, Strano A, Gulisano G (2017) Life cycle tools combined with multi-criteria and participatory methods for agricultural sustainability: Insights from a systematic and critical review. Sci Total Environ 595:352–370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.284
de Oliveira Bordonal R, Carvalho JLN, Lal R, de Figueiredo EB, de Oliveira BG, La Scala N (2018) Sustainability of sugarcane production in Brazil. A Rev Agron Sustain Dev 38(2):13
Ekener E, Hansson J, Larsson A, Peck P (2018) Developing life cycle sustainability assessment methodology by applying values-based sustainability weighting—tested on biomass based and fossil transportation fuels. J Clean Prod 181:337–351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.01.211
EPA (1996a) AP 42 emission factors bagasse combustion in sugar mills. In: Ap 42, compilation of air pollutant emission factors, volume 1 stationary point and area sources. Retrieved from https://www3.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch01/final/c01s08.pdf
EPA, (1996b) AP 42 emission factors diesel. In: Compilation of air pollutant emission factors, volume I: stationary point and area sources, AP-42. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch03/index.html
EPA, (2009) AP 42 emission factors pesticides. Retrieved from https://www3.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch09/final/c9s02-2.pdf
European Parliament (2009) Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the council of 23 April 2009. Off J Eur Union 140(16):16–62. https://doi.org/10.3000/17252555.L_2009.140.eng
Favretto N, Stringer LC, Buckeridge MS, Afionis S (2017) Policy and diplomacy in the production of second generation ethanol in Brazil: international relations with the EU, the USA and Africa. Advances of basic science for second generation bioethanol from sugarcane. Springer, Berlin, pp 197–212
Fokaides PA, Christoforou E (2016) Life cycle sustainability assessment of biofuels. Handbook of biofuels production. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 41–60
Foteinis S, Kouloumpis V, Tsoutsos T (2011) Life cycle analysis for bioethanol production from sugar beet crops in Greece. Energy Policy 39(9):4834–4841. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENPOL.2011.06.036
Gabisa EW, Bessou C, Gheewala SH (2019) Life cycle environmental performance and energy balance of ethanol production based on sugarcane molasses in Ethiopia. J Clean Prod 234:43–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2019.06.199
George PAO, Eras JJC, Gutierrez AS, Hens L, Vandecasteele C (2010) Residue from sugarcane juice filtration (filter cake): energy use at the sugar factory. Waste Biomass Valoriz 1(4):407–413
Gnansounou E, Vaskan P, Pachón ER (2015) Comparative techno-economic assessment and LCA of selected integrated sugarcane-based biorefineries. Biores Technol 196:364–375
Goedkoop M, Heijungs R, Huijbregts M, De Schryver A, Struijs J, & Van Zelm R (2009) ReCiPe 2008. A life cycle impact assessment method which comprises harmonised category indicators at the midpoint and the endpoint level, 1
Halog A, Manik Y (2011) Advancing integrated systems modelling framework for life cycle sustainability assessment. Sustainability 3(2):469–499
Hunkeler D, Lichtenvort K, Rebitzer G (2008) Environmental life cycle costing. CRC Press, Boca Raton
IEA (2016) World energy statistics 2016. In: World energy statistics 2016. Retrieved from www.iea.org/statistics/
INMETRO (2014) Veículos leves. Retrieved 28 Dec 2018, from http://estaticog1.globo.com/2014/01/20/veiculos_leves_2014.pdf
Iriarte A, Rieradevall J, Gabarrell X (2010) Life cycle assessment of sunflower and rapeseed as energy crops under Chilean conditions. J Clean Prod 18(4):336–345
Jeswani HK, Azapagic A (2012) Life cycle sustainability assessment of second generation biodiesel. Advances in biodiesel production. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 13–31
Jonker JGG, Van Der Hilst F, Junginger HM, Cavalett O, Chagas MF, Faaij APC (2015) Outlook for ethanol production costs in Brazil up to 2030, for different biomass crops and industrial technologies. Appl Energy 147:593–610
Kloepffer W (2008) Life cycle sustainability assessment of products. The Int J Life Cycle Assess 13(2):89
Kubiak R, Burkle L, Cousins I, Hourdakis A, Jarvis T, Jene B, Koch W, Kreuger J, Maier W, Millet M, Reinert W (2008) Pesticides in air: considerations for exposure assessment. Report of the FOCUS working group on pesticides in air, EC document reference SANCO/10553/2006 Rev, 2
Leah C, Hanna L (2018) Politics in the US energy transition: case studies of solar, wind, biofuels and electric vehicles policy. Energy Policy 113:76–86
Lopes ML, de Lima Paulillo SC, Godoy A, Cherubin RA, Lorenzi MS, Giometti FHC, de Amorim HV (2016) Ethanol production in Brazil: a bridge between science and industry. Braz J Microbiol 47:64–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.BJM.2016.10.003ML
Luo L, Van Der Voet E, Huppes G (2009) Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of bioethanol from sugarcane in Brazil. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 13(6–7):1613–1619
Mahbub N, Oyedun AO, Zhang H, Kumar A, Poganietz WR (2019) A life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) of oxymethylene ether as a diesel additive produced from forest biomass. Int J Life Cycle Assess 24(5):881–899. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-018-1529-6
Ministry of Energy and Mining (2010) National Biofuels Policy 2010–2030, Retrieved (Oct) from http://www.pcj.com/dnn/Portals/0/Documents/National_Renewable_Energy_Policy_August_26_2010.pdf
Ministry of Energy and Mining (2011) Biomass feedstock and cogeneration in the sugar industry of jamaica FWC1-138. Retrieved from https://www.mset.gov.jm/sites/default/files/pdf/Biomass Feedstock and cogeneration in the sugar industry_0.pdf
Ministry of Mining and Energy (2010) Presentation by ministry of energy and mining to the sugarcane industry commission of inquiry. Retrieved 6 July 2019 from http://www.moa.gov.jm/sugar_inquiry/data/PS-MEM_SugarBiofuels16-07-2010.ppt
Nemecek T, Kägi T, & Blaser S (2007) Life cycle inventories of agricultural production systems. Final Report ecoinvent v2. 0 No. 15
Pesonen H-L, Horn S (2013) Evaluating the sustainability SWOT as a streamlined tool for life cycle sustainability assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess 18(9):1780–1792
Petrojam (n.d.-a) Price Index
Petrojam (n.d.-b) Price Index. Retrieved 26 Jan 2019, from http://www.petrojam.com/price-index?field_price_date_value
Raman JK, Gnansounou E (2015) LCA of bioethanol and furfural production from vetiver. Bioresour Technol 185:202–210
Rathnayake M, Chaireongsirikul T, Svangariyaskul A, Lawtrakul L, Toochinda P (2018) Process simulation based life cycle assessment for bioethanol production from cassava, cane molasses, and rice straw. J Clean Prod 190:24–35
Rico JAP, Mercedes SSP, Sauer IL (2010) Genesis and consolidation of the Brazilian bioethanol: a review of policies and incentive mechanisms. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 14(7):1874–1887
Rodríguez AG (2011) Investigación y desarrollo e innovación para el desarrollo de los biocombustibles en América Latina y el Caribe
Roy P, Tokuyasu K, Orikasa T, Nakamura N, Shiina T (2012) A review of life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Jpn Agric Res Q JARQ 46(1):41–57
Saga K, Imou K, Yokoyama S, Minowa T (2010) Net energy analysis of bioethanol production system from high-yield rice plant in Japan. Appl Energy 87(7):2164–2168
Sala S, Farioli F, Zamagni A (2013) Life cycle sustainability assessment in the context of sustainability science progress (part 2). Int J Life Cycle Assess 18(9):1686–1697. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-012-0509-5
Sala S, Vasta A, Mancini L, Dewulf J, Rosenbaum E (2015) Social life cycle assessment-state of the art and challenges for supporting product policies. https://doi.org/10.2788/253715
Sharma A, Strezov V (2017) Life cycle environmental and economic impact assessment of alternative transport fuels and power-train technologies. Energy 133:1132–1141
Silalertruksa T, Gheewala SH (2009) Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand. Energy 34(11):1933–1946
Souza A, Watanabe MDB, Cavalett O, Ugaya CML, Bonomi A (2018) Social life cycle assessment of first and second-generation ethanol production technologies in Brazil. Int J Life Cycle Assess 23(3):617–628. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-016-1112-y
Subramanian K, Chau CK, Yung WKC (2018) Relevance and feasibility of the existing social LCA methods and case studies from a decision-making perspective. J Clean Prod 171:690–703. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.10.006
Suppen N, Rosa E, Naranjo C, & Kulay L (2013) Guía de biocombustibles. Centro de Análisis de Ciclo de Vida y Diseño Sustentable
Swarr TE, Hunkeler D, Klöpffer W, Pesonen H-L, Ciroth A, Brent AC, Pagan R (2011) Environmental life-cycle costing: a code of practice. Springer, Berlin
Technical Committe 207/SC5 (2006a) ISO 14040:2006 Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Principles and framework
Technical Committe 207/SC5 (2006b) ISO 14044:2006 Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Requirements and guidelines.
United States Energy Information Administration (2011) Today in energy. Retrieved 26 Dec 2018, from https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=3670
United States Energy Information Administration (2018) Fuel ethanol production 2015. Retrieved 30 Nov 2018, from https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/rankings/#?iso=JAM&cy=2015&pid=80&ug=8&tl_id=79-A
Velaquez S, Moreira JR, Santos SA, & Coelho ST (2011) Project BEST—Bioethanol for sustainable transport—and the public policies of encouragement to ethanol usage. In: Electrical and control engineering (ICECE), 2011 international conference on, 4870–4873. IEEE
Walter A & Dolzan P (2014) Country report Brazil. In: IEA Bioenergy Task 40
Weidema BP, Bauer C, Hischier R, Mutel C, Nemecek T, Reinhard J, Wernet G (2013) Overview and methodology: data quality guideline for the ecoinvent database version 3
Authors gratefully acknowledge Organization of American States (OAS) for funding this research work.
Organization of American States (OAS) funded this research work. This bioethanol study was conducted in Jamaica within the framework of the Memorandum of Understanding between the USA and Brazil to promote cooperation in biofuels.
Conflict of interest
No conflicts of interest/competing interests to declare.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Batuecas, E., Contreras-Lisperguer, R., Mayo, C. et al. Jamaican bioethanol: an environmental and economic life cycle assessment. Clean Techn Environ Policy (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-021-02037-8
- Life cycle costing (LCC)
- Life cycle assessment (LCA)
- Clean technology
- Sustainable development