Distributed polygeneration using local resources for an Indian village: multiobjective optimization using metaheuristic algorithm

  • Avishek Ray
  • Kuntal Jana
  • Mohsen Assadi
  • Sudipta De
Original Paper
  • 1 Downloads

Abstract

Introduction of renewable energy systems is an imperative need at present. Hybridization of locally available different renewable resources is required due to intermittency of these resources. A multicriteria optimization using cuckoo search algorithm for simultaneous best combination of economy, land use and GHG emission has been carried out for polygeneration with three utility outputs. These are electricity, heat and high calorific value gas. The levelized cost of electricity at 100% reliability of power supply has come out to be 0.1 USD/kWh. For better economy, a minimum plant life of 20 years is desired. This study is with data for a small hilly village of India with mostly poor people. Methodology and results of this study represent optimization of such sustainable energy systems using local resources in specific sites.

Keywords

Polygeneration Lévy flights Metaheuristic Levelized cost of electricity 

List of symbols

Abbreviations

AI

Annualized investment (USD)

CSA

Cuckoo search algorithm

CV

Calorific value (kJ/kg)

FC

Fuel cell

GA

Genetic Algorithm

H

Hydrogen

LCOE

Levelized cost of electricity (USD/kWh)

LPSP

Loss of power supply probability

PEM

Proton exchange membrane

PV

Photovoltaic

PSO

Particle swarm optimization

UL

Unmet load

WT

Wind turbine

Symbols

IT

Total radiation on a tilted surface (W/m2)

Ib

Total beam radiation on a surface (W/m2)

rb

Tilt factor for beam radiation

Id

Total diffuse radiation on a surface (W/m2)

rd

Tilt factor for diffuse radiation (W/m2)

rr

Tilt factor for reflected radiation (W/m2)

θ

Incidence angle of solar radiation (°)

θz

Zenith angle (°)

δ

Declination angle (°)

β

Slope of the solar collector (°)

φ

Latitude (°)

ω

Hour angle (°)

ρ

Albedo

α1

Temperature coefficient of open-circuit voltage (V)

α2

Temperature coefficient of short-circuit current (V)

I(t)

Instantaneous output current of solar module (A)

Iincident

Solar radiation falling on the module at time t (W/m2)

BGavail

Availability of biogas per day (m3/day)

CEtotal

Total initial cost of the electrolyzer (USD)

CFCtotal

The total cost of fuel cell installation (USD)

CHs

Total cost of hydrogen storage (USD)

CM

Annualized maintenance cost (USD/year)

CF

Annualized fuel cost (USD/year)

CPelec

Cost of electrolyzer per watt (CHF)

CPfc

Cost of fuel cell per watt (USD)

CPsol

Cost of PV module per watt (USD)

CPtotal

Total cost of PV module (USD)

CFCinstalled

Total installed capacity of the fuel cell system (kW)

Ceqb

Cost of biogas system of capacity b (USD)

Ceqa

Cost of biogas system capacity a (USD)

CVh

Calorific value of hydrogen (kJ/kg)

CVbio

Calorific value of biogas (kJ/m3)

CVg

Calorific value of the gaseous mixture (kJ/kg)

Cg

Cost of gaseous mixture (USD/kg)

Cp

Betz limit

CPfc

Cost of fuel cell per watt (USD)

CWH

Annualized cost of waste heat recovery system (USD)

CHkg

Cost incurred to transport 1 kg of hydrogen (USD)

CHs

Initial cost of hydrogen storage (USD)

CWtotal

Total initial investment for wind turbine installation (USD)

Winstalled

Installation capacity of wind turbine (kW)

CWinperkW

Cost of wind turbine per kW (USD)

Et

Total units of electricity generated in the life of the plant to cater the local load (kWh)

ELinstalled

Installed capacity of electrolyzer (kW)

Efc

Electricity generated by the fuel cell (kW)

Edeficit

Yearly electrical energy deficit (kWh/year)

G

Total GHG emission (g-CO2)

Gs

Emission factor of solar module (g-CO2)

Fg

Emission factor of fuel cell (g-CO2)

FCins

Total installed capacity of the fuel cell system (kW)

Gd

Emission factor of biogas digester (g-CO2)

Gg

Emission factor of biomass gasifier (g-CO2)

Hd

Maximum hydrogen required per day (kg)

Helec(t)

Instantaneous amount of hydrogen produced (kg)

Hfc

Amount of hydrogen fed to fuel cell (kg)

Hkg

Cost incurred to store 1 kg of hydrogen in metal hydride tank (USD/kg)

Hy

Total amount of hydrogen transported per year (kg)

i

Bank discount rate (%)

n

Economic life of the system (years)

L

Total land requirement (m2)

Lsol

Land requirement for 1 kW of PV installation (m2)

Lbio

Land requirement for 1 kW of biogas installation (m2)

Lwind

Land requirement for 1 kW of WT installation (m2)

NFLCOE

Normalization factor for LCOE

NFL

Normalization factor for land requirement

NFG

Normalization factor for GHG emission

OP

Operating hours of gas engine per annum (h)

Psol(t)

Instantaneous output power of solar module (kW)

Pload

Total electrical load in a year (kWh)

PVinstalled

Installed capacity of PV module (kW)

Ry

Revenue earned per year (USD)

RG

Annualized revenue earned from hydrogen selling (USD)

RWH

Annualized revenue from waste heat (USD)

s

Scale factor for costing of wet biogas systems

Tfailure

Yearly total power failure time (h/year)

Ttotal

Total hours of operation of the plant (h)

V(t)

Instantaneous voltage output of solar module (V)

Winstalled

Total capacity of wind turbine (kW)

Wf

Weighing factor for LCOE

WL

Weighing factor for land requirement

WG

Weighing factor for GHG emission

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the University Grants Commission (UGC) of India and Research Council of Norway (RCN) for the financial support of INCP-2014/10086 project. Mr Kuntal Jana gratefully acknowledges the fellowship provided by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, for this research work.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Avishek Ray
    • 1
  • Kuntal Jana
    • 1
  • Mohsen Assadi
    • 2
  • Sudipta De
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversity of StavangerStavangerNorway

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