Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 859–868 | Cite as

Influence of fatty acids in waste cooking oil for cleaner biodiesel

  • Lai Fatt Chuah
  • Jiří Jaromír Klemeš
  • Suzana Yusup
  • Awais Bokhari
  • Majid Majeed Akbar
Original Paper


Physiochemical properties of biodiesel, a sustainable and green alternative fuel produced from renewable resources, are greatly influenced by the structural features of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids. Two feedstock oils, potentially contribution to cleaner technologies, refined cooking oil and waste cooking oil derived from palm olein have been studied. Fatty acid compositions of the refined cooking oil and waste cooking oil were analysed and confronted with other literature sources. Critical parameters such as cetane number (CN), iodine value, cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and oxidation stability (OS) were correlated with long-chain saturated factor and degree of unsaturation (DU) of fatty acid to match the international standards of cleaner biodiesel. OS in biodiesel has been met with the absence of linolenic acid. High saturated fatty acid provides high CN. The iodine value of feedstock oil met the European standard where the DU of the oils was less than 138. However, CFPP of refined cooking oil and waste cooking oil did not meet the demanding Spanish regional (RD 61/2006) standard due to the presence of stearic and palmitic acid, which tended to clog the fuel filter by precipitating while the biodiesel becomes cool. With the proposed triangular chart for biodiesel properties prediction, potential biodiesel fuels from various feedstock oils can be analysed.


Influence Fatty acid Biodiesel physical properties Cleaner biodiesel 



This research was conducted under MyRA Grant (No. 0153AB-J19) and PRGS Grant (No. 0153AB-K19). The authors would like to thank Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Public Service Department of Malaysia, Marine Department Malaysia, Ong Shying Weei, Timmy Chuah Tim Mie, Jenna Tan and Pázmány Péter Catholic University (Pázmány Péter Katolicus Egyetem) Budapest, Hungary for their support.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lai Fatt Chuah
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jiří Jaromír Klemeš
    • 3
  • Suzana Yusup
    • 1
  • Awais Bokhari
    • 1
    • 4
  • Majid Majeed Akbar
    • 5
  1. 1.Chemical Engineering Department, Biomass Processing Laboratory, Center of Biofuel and Biochemical ResearchUniversiti Teknologi PETRONASSeri IskandarMalaysia
  2. 2.Marine Department Malaysia Northern RegionGelugorMalaysia
  3. 3.Faculty of Information Technology and BionicsPázmány Péter Catholic UniversityBudapestHungary
  4. 4.Chemical Engineering DepartmentCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyLahorePakistan
  5. 5.Institute of Chemical Engineering and TechnologyUniversity of PunjabLahorePakistan

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