Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 925–931 | Cite as

Biodiesel production from free fatty acids and the effects of its blends with alcohol–diesel on engine characteristics

  • İbrahim Aslan Reşitoğlu
  • Ali Keskin
Original Paper


In this experimental study, biodiesel production from free fatty acids of soybean oil and the effects of its blends with alcohol–diesel on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions were studied. Crude glycerine was neutralized to produce the free fatty acids. Methyl alcohol was reacted with the free fatty acids in the presence of acid catalyst to form biodiesel. Biodiesel, diesel, and alcohols were mixed at different volumetric ratios, and the properties of each blend were determined. The blends and diesel were tested in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine at full-load conditions. In conclusion, torque and power characteristics of blends were found similar to those of diesel. Break specific fuel consumption of the blends slightly increased depending on lower heating values. CO and smoke emissions decreased up to 34.52 and 39.30 %, respectively. Although NOx emissions increased with B50, it showed a downward trend with alcohol-containing blends.


Biodiesel Esterification Alcohol Diesel engine Exhaust emission 


  1. Anastacio GS, Santos KO, Suarez PAZ, Torres FAG, De Marco JL, Parachin NS (2014) Utilization of glycerin byproduct derived from soybean oil biodiesel as a carbon source for heterologous production in pichia pastoris. Bioresour Technol 152:505–510. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.11.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chuah LF, Aziz ARA, Yusup S, Bokhari A, Klemes JJ, Abdullah MZ (2015) Performance and emission of diesel engine fuelled by waste cooking oil methyl ester derived from palm olein using hydrodynamic cavitation. Clean Technol Environ Policy 17:2229–2241. doi: 10.1007/s10098-015-0957-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gerpen JV (2005) Biodiesel processing and production. Fuel Process Technol 86:1097–1107. doi: 10.1016/j.fuproc.2004.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Javani A, Hasheminejad M, Tahvildari K, Tabatabaei M (2012) High quality potassium phosphate production through step-by-step glycerol purification: a strategy to economize biodiesel production. Bioresour Technol 104:788–790. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.134 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Resitoglu İA, Keskin A, Gürü M (2012) The optimization of the esterification reaction in biodiesel production from trap grease. Energy Sources, Part A 34:1238–1248. doi: 10.1080/15567031003792395 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Singhabhandhu A, Tezuka T (2010) A perspective on incorporation of glycerin purification process in biodiesel plants using waste cooking oil as feedstock. Energy 35:2493–2504. doi: 10.1016/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Siwale L, Kristof L, Adam T, Bereczky A, Mbarawa M (2013) Combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol/diesel fuel blend in a turbo-charged compression ignition engine. Fuel 107:409–418. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2012.11.083 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Su J, Zhu H, Bohac SV (2013) Particulate matter emission comparison from conventional and premixed low temperature combustion with diesel, biodiesel and biodiesel–ethanol fuels. Fuel 113:221–227. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.05.068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Yamin JA, Sakhnini N, Sakhrieh A, Hamdan MA (2013) Environmental and performance study of a 4-stroke CI engine powered with waste oil biodiesel. Sustain Cities Soc 9:32–38. doi: 10.1016/j.scs.2013.02.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Yılmaz N, Sanchez TM (2012) Analysis of operating a diesel engine on biodiesel–ethanol and biodiesel–methanol blends. Energy 46:126–129. doi: 10.1016/ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Zhu L, Cheung CS, Zhang WG, Fang JH, Huang Z (2013) Effects of ethanol–biodiesel blends and diesel oxidation catalyst (doc) on particulate and unregulated emissions. Fuel 113:690–696. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.06.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Automotive Technology, Technical Sciences Vocational SchoolMersin UniversityMersinTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Automotive Engineering, Engineering and Architecture FacultyCukurova UniversityAdanaTurkey

Personalised recommendations