Immediate effect of neurofeedback training on the pain matrix and cortical areas involved in processing neuropsychological functions



This study investigated the impact of neurofeedback training on the deeper cortical structures that comprise the “pain matrix” and are involved in processing neuropsychological functions.


Five paraplegic patients with central neuropathic pain received up to 40 sessions of neurofeedback training. They were asked to simultaneously modulate the relative power of the theta, alpha and beta bands, provided as a feedback from the sensorimotor cortex. The source localization technique was applied on EEG data recorded with 16 electrodes placed over the whole head.


Neurofeedback training from the sensorimotor cortex induced effects on the pain matrix and in the areas involved in processing neuropsychological functions such as memory, executive functions and emotional regulations. Alpha and beta band activity was most increased in insular, cingulate and frontal cortex regions, and other areas corresponding to executive and emotional function processing. Theta band decreases were noted in the frontal, cingulate and motor cortices. In group analysis, theta and beta band activity was significantly reduced.


The single channel electroencephalogram-based neurofeedback training produced effects on similar areas that are targeted in 19 channels standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography and expensive time-delayed functional magnetic resonance imaging feedback studies.

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We thank Dr. Purcell and Dr. Mclean, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, for choosing participants of the study and to all participants for taking part. This work has been partially supported by the MRC grant G0902257/1, the Glasgow Research Partnership in Engineering, NED University of Pakistan PhD scholarship, and by GU 68 trust University of Glasgow. We are also thankful to Ms. Sara Amjad and Mr. Usman Salim, NED University of Engineering & Technology, for providing their support regarding the use of sLORETA software.


NED University of Pakistan PhD scholarship, and MRC grant G0902257/1.

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We confirm that all authors have made substantial contributions to the research design, or the acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data; and to drafting the paper or reviewing it critically; and that all authors have approved the submitted version.

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Correspondence to Muhammad Abul Hasan.

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Hasan, M.A., Vuckovic, A., Qazi, S.A. et al. Immediate effect of neurofeedback training on the pain matrix and cortical areas involved in processing neuropsychological functions. Neurol Sci (2021).

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  • Neurofeedback
  • Electroencephalogram
  • Pain matrix
  • Chronic pain