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Table 4 Analyses at individual level of face and body scratching

From: If horses had toes: demonstrating mirror self recognition at group level in Equus caballus

Horses Face-SCR Body-SCR
Sham Mark Chi-square, p-values Sham Mark Chi-square, p-values
Antonia 0.0 7.5 N/A 0.0 1.4 N/A
Arramon 0.0 0.0 N/A 4.5 5.0 N/A
Ercole 3.7 15.6 Χ2 = 6.2; p = 0.013 17.1 20.3 Χ2 = 0.1; p = 0.729
Falco2 3.7 7.0 Χ2 = 0.5; p = 0.480 0.0 0.0 N/A
King 0.0 5.0 N/A 3.7 0.0 N/A
Nadijia 0.0 4.3 N/A 2.7 3.6 N/A
Oliver 0.0 4.8 N/A 6.6 7.1 Χ2 = 0.0; p = 1.000
Oti 0.0 5.1 N/A 21.3 5.5 Χ2 = 8.2; p = 0.004
Serafine 4.0 0.0 N/A 0.0 5.0 N/A
Shaif 1.1 9.0 Χ2 = 4.7; p = 0.030 30.3 7.2 Χ2 = 13; p < 0.001
Sunshine 1.7 10.1 Χ2 = 4.6; p = 0.031 8.2 4.5 Χ2 = 0.6; p = 0.446
  1. Results of the analyses carried out at individual level of face (Face-SCR) and body (Body-SCR) scratching in the Sham and Mark conditions. For the Face-SCR duration (in seconds), the significant results indicate a difference in favor of the Mark compared to the Sham condition (Face-SCR Mark > Face-SCR Sham). For the Body-SCR duration (in seconds), the significant results indicate a difference in favor of the SHAM compared to the MARK condition (Body-SCR Sham > Body-SCR Mark).