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Table 3 Analyses at individual level for the contingency behaviors

From: If horses had toes: demonstrating mirror self recognition at group level in Equus caballus

Horses Head movements Peek-a-Boo Look behind Tongue protrusion
CM OM Χ2; p CM OM Χ2; p CM OM Χ2; p CM OM Χ2; p
Antonia 0.0 0.0 N/A 0.0 4.9 N/A 0.0 4.6 N/A 0.0 10.1 Χ2 = 8.2; p = 0.004
Arramon 0.0 2.5 N/A 0.0 2.6 N/A 13.7 29.8 Χ2 = 5.2; p = 0.0221 0.0 0.0 N/A
Ercole 0.0 25.9 Χ2 = 23.9; p < .0001 0.0 2.0 N/A 0.0 24.6 Χ2 = 22.6; p < .0001 0.0 0.0 N/A
Falco2 15.6 31.1 Χ2 = 4.5; p = 0.034 0.0 3.1 N/A 0.0 0.0 N/A 0.0 0.0 N/A
King 3.7 1.9 N/A 0.0 27.9 Χ2 = 25.9; p < .0001 0.0 20.8 Χ2 = 18.8; p < .0001 0.0 0.0 N/A
Naidjia 0.0 29.7 Χ2 = 27.7; p < .0001 0.0 0.0 N/A 2.2 23.5 Χ2 = 16.0; p < .0001 0.0 0.0 N/A
Oliver 0.0 6.7 N/A 0.0 18.6 Χ2 = 16.7; p < .0001 0.0 4.2 N/A 0.0 0.0 N/A
Oti 0.0 0.0 N/A 0.0 2.2 N/A 0.0 22.2 Χ2 = 20.2; p < .0001 0.0 0.0 N/A
Serafine 0.0 15.6 Χ2 = 13.7; p < .0001 0.0 18.6 Χ2 = 16.7; p < .0001 2.9 8.1 Χ2 = 1.6; p = 0.206 0.0 0.4 N/A
Shaif 2.2 26.4 Χ2 = 18.8; p < .0001 0.0 30.2 Χ2 = 28.2; p < .0001 0.0 0.0 N/A 0.0 0.0 N/A
  1. Results of the analyses (Chi-Square, Χ2; p values) at individual level for the four contingency behaviors recorded in the Covered Mirror (CM) and Open Mirror (OM) conditions. Values in CM and OM columns are reported in seconds. N/A: not applicable