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Table 1 Operational definition of the behavioral patterns

From: If horses had toes: demonstrating mirror self recognition at group level in Equus caballus

Behavior Definition Supplementary information Cohen’s K values
Behaviors towards the mirror
Selective attention The horse maintains its head perpendicular to the mirror surface and its ears directed towards the mirror Online Resource 2 K = 0.98
Exploring mirror The behavior includes sniffing, licking, biting, touching the mirror using the mouth and the nose as previously defined (Baragli et al. 2017) Online Resource 3 K = 0.94
Contingency behaviors
Looking behind The horse is close to the mirror (< 1 m) and put its head and neck beyond the fence. The horse turns its head toward the rear side of the mirror as previously defined (Baragli et al. 2017) Online Resource 4 K = 0.90
Peek-a-boo The horse moves its head out and back in sight of the mirror Online Resource 5 K = 0.87
Head movements The horse performs a series of vertical and lateral quick movements with the head while looking at the mirror with or without stretching its neck Online Resource 6 K = 1.00
Tongue protrusion The horse protrudes the tip or a large part of its tongue out of the mouth, without showing teeth Online Resource 7 K = 1.00
Self-directed behaviors
Face scratching (Face-SCR) The horse rubs its face by using both its ipsi- or contralateral forelimbs or any kind of support (wooden poles, the frame of the mirror, ground) Online Resource 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 K = 1.00
Body scratching (Body-SCR) The horse rubs any part of its body excluding the face, by using both its ipsi- or contralateral forelimbs or by using any kind of support (wooden poles, the fence, the frame of the mirror) Online Resource 8, 13, 14 K = 1.00
  1. First column: names of the behavioral patterns (and acronyms) performed by the horses and considered in the study. Second column: operational definition of each behavioral pattern. Third column: supporting material illustrating the single pattern. Fourth column: Cohen’s K values obtained for each behavioral pattern indicating the degree of agreement between the two observers