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GC–MS metabolomics revealed protocatechuic acid as a cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing compound from black rice brans


GC–MS metabolomics was used to discriminate the phytochemicals profile of Indonesian white, red, and black rice brans, and Japanese white rice brans. This technique was used for the first time to identify compounds in rice brans having cytotoxic activity against WiDr colon cancer cells. Orthogonal Projection to the Latent Structure (OPLS) analysis showed that protocatechuic acid (PA) was a discriminating factor found in black rice brans which strongly correlated with its cytotoxicity (IC50 8.53 ± 0.26 µM). Real time-PCR data demonstrated that PA cytotoxicity at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 µg/mL) was mediated through different pathways. Bcl-2 expression was downregulated at all tested concentrations indicating apoptosis stimulation. At 1–10 ppm concentration, PA activated both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways since the expression of p53, Bax, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were upregulated. At a higher dose (25 and 50 µg/mL), PA possibly involved in pyroptosis-mediated pro-inflammatory cell death by upregulating the expression of caspase-1 and caspase-7.

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Ministry of Research and Higher Education Republic of Indonesia is gratefully acknowledged for partially funding this research through International Collaboration Research scheme with contract number 631/IT3.11/PL/2015.

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NDY: writing the manuscript, responsible for multivariate data analysis. MZT: responsible for sample extraction and in vitro experiment, proof read the manuscript. AK: responsible for GC–MS measurement, proof read the manuscript. FL: responsible for RT PCR experiment, proof read the manuscript. S: checking and read carefully the manuscript for any inappropriate content and misspelling.

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Correspondence to Nancy Dewi Yuliana.

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Fig. S1 Representative chromatograms of rice brans. Putative compound were numbered from 1 to 10 and determined by comparing with the compounds data base in NIST-14 Library which have the highest similarity percentage (1 = Protocatechuic acid, 2 = Fructose, 3 = Glucose, 4 = Hexanoic acid, 5 = Inositol, 6 = 9,12 - Octadecadienoic acid, 7 = Oleic acid, 8 = Octadecanoic acid, 9 = α-D-Glucopyranoside, 10 = β-sitosterol (PPTX 504 kb)

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Yuliana, N.D., Tuarita, M.Z., Khatib, A. et al. GC–MS metabolomics revealed protocatechuic acid as a cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing compound from black rice brans. Food Sci Biotechnol 29, 825–835 (2020).

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  • Rice brans
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Apoptosis
  • Metabolomics
  • Protocatechuic acid