Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 705–713 | Cite as

Isolation and identification of a bacterial cellulose synthesizing strain from kombucha in different conditions: Gluconacetobacter xylinus ZHCJ618

  • Wen Zhang
  • Xuechuan Wang
  • Xiangjun Qi
  • Longfang Ren
  • Taotao Qiang


A bacterial cellulose (BC) synthesizing strain (Gluconacetobacter xylinus ZHCJ618) was isolated from kombucha and selected as the species for commercial applications owing to its high phenotypic stability and sustainable production capacity of 7.56 ± 0.57 g/L under static culturing conditions and 8.31 ± 0.79 g/L under shaking conditions. The morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the strain were similar to those of Gluconacetobacter genus. The 16S rDNA sequence homologies with G. xylinus NCIB 11664 reached 99%, showing that the isolated strain can be identified as G. xylinus. The material properties of BC were studied by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and tensile test. The results showed that BC synthesized under static conditions exhibited stronger tear strength, higher crystallinity, superior waterhold and rehydration rate than BC synthesized under shaking conditions.


Bacterial cellulose Gluconacetobacter xylinus Kombucha 16S rDNA sequence 



The project supported by Science and Technology Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Program No. 2016NY-156) and Scientific Research Program Funded by Shaanxi Provincial Education Department (Program No. 15JK1108). Thank professor Peiying-Guo for making improvements to the English language for this manuscript.


  1. 1.
    Barud HS, Rodrigo TR, Marques FC, Lustri WR, Messaddeq Y, Ribeiro SJL. Antimicrobial Bacterial Cellulose-Silver Nanoparticles Composite Membranes. J. Nanomater. 8: 1–8 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cai ZJ, Yang G. Bacterial cellulose/collagen composite: Characterization and first evaluation of cytocompatibility. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120: 2938–2944 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Saska S, Teixeir LN, Oliveira PTD, Messaddeq Y. Bacterial cellulose-collagen nanocomposite for bone tissue engineering. J. Mater. Chem. 22: 22102–22112 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Klemm D, Kramer F, Moritz S, Lindstrom T, Ankerfors M, Gray D, Dorris A. Nanocelluloses: a new family of nature-based materials. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50: 5438–5466 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gao C, Yan T, Dai K, Wan Y. Immobilization of gelatin onto natural nanofibers for tissue engineering scaffold applications without utilization of any crosslinking agent. Cellulose. 19: 761–768 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liu B, Zhang Z, Huang K. Cellulose sulfuric acid as a bio-supported and recyclable solid acid catalyst for the synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 5-ethoxymethylfurfural from fructose. Cellulose. 20: 2081–2089 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eichhorn SJ, Dufresne A, Aranguren M, Marcovich NE, Capadona JR, Rowan SJ, Weder C, Thielemans W, Roman M, Renneckar S. Review: Current international research into cellulose nanofibres and nanocomposites. J. Mater. Sci. 45: 1–33 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bungay HR, Serafica. Production of microbial cellulose. U.S. Patent, 6,071,727 (1997)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xie JJ, Hong F. Recent Progress in fermentation feedstocks of bacterial cellulose. Journal of Cellulose Science and Technology. 19: 68–77 (2011) (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stapleton PC, Dobson ADW. Carbon repression of cellobiose dehydrogenase production in the white rot fungus trametes versicolor is mediated at the level of gene transcription. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 221: 167–172 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Serafica G, Mormino R, Bungay H. Inclusion of solid particles in bacterial cellulose. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 58: 756–760 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mormino R. Incorporation of common cellulose into bacterial cellulose. Ph. Thesis, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shen XK. Review of kombucha research progress. Ind. Sci. Tribune. 11: 104–105 (2012) (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang W, Qi XJ. Studies on the method of collecting the cells Producing Bacterial Cellulose. Food Ind. Sci. Technol. 27: 57–58 (2006) (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dong XZ, Cai MY. Manual of Commonly Determinative Bacteriology. Science Press, Beijing, China, pp. 364–390 (2001) (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhang LP, Lu HM, Peng XP, Dai R. Study on structure and properties of bacterial cellulose produced by trickling fermentation. Food Ind. Sci. Technol. 33: 197–201 (2012) (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nguyen VT, Flanagan B, Mikkelsen D, Ramirez S, Rivas L, Gidley MJ, Dykes GA. Spontaneous mutation result in lower cellulose production by a Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain from Kombucha. Carbohydr. Polym. 80: 337–343 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Park JK, Park YH, Jung JY. Production of bacterial cellulose by Gluconacetobacter hansenii PJK isolated from a rotten apple. Biotechnol. Bioproc. Eng. 8: 83–88 (2003b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aydin YN, Aksoy ND. Isolation and characterization of an efficient bacterial cellulose producer strain in agitated culture: Gluconacetobacter hansenii P2A. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 98: 1065–1075. (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oikawa T, Morino T, Ameyama M. Production of cellulose from D-arabitol by Acetobacter xylinum KU-1. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 59:1564–1565 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Son HJ, Kim HG, Kim KK, Kim HS, Kim YG, Lee SJ. Increased production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter sp. V6 in synthetic media under shaking culture conditions. Bioresour. Technol. 86: 215–219 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Park K, Jung JY, Park YH. Cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter hansenii in a medium containing ethanol. Biotechnol. Lett. 25: 2055–2059 (2003a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Czaja W, Romanovicz D, Brown RMJ. Structural investigations of microbial cellulose produced in stationery and agitated culture. Cellulose.11: 403–411 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rajalaxmi D, Marcus F, Arthur JR. Improving the mechanical and thermal properties of gelatin hydrogels cross-linked by cellulose nanowhiskers. Carbohydr. Polym. 91: 638–645 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shoda M, Sugano Y. Recent advances in bacterial cellulose production. Biotechnol. Bioproc. Eng. 10: 1–8 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shaanxi University of Science and TechnologyXi’anChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Auxiliary Chemistry and Technology for Chemical Industry, Ministry of EducationShaanxi University of Science and TechnologyXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations