Advertisement

Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 565–573 | Cite as

Immuno-enhancement effect of polysaccharide extracted from Stichopus japonicus on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression mice

  • Chaiwat Monmai
  • Sung Hee Park
  • SangGuan You
  • Woo Jung Park
Article
  • 184 Downloads

Abstract

Polysaccharide (SJP) was extracted from Sea cucumber, Stichopus japonicas, and its immune-enhancing activities were evaluated in vivo immune-suppressed mice systems. Cyclophosphamide(CY)-treated mice were orally administrated with SJP according to different concentrations. The results showed that administration of SJP significantly increased spleen index without variation of the body weight, compared to only CY treatment group. The proliferation of splenic lymphocyte and NK activity was also stimulated by SJP. In addition, the oral administration of SJP up-regulated COX-2 and TLR-4 as well as cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ, which are secreted from splenic lymphocytes in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. Moreover, our results showed that SJP stimulated macrophages via NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. These findings provided the potential use of SJP as an alternative means under immune-suppressed conditions, and furthermore can be utilized as a functional material for food and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords

Polysaccharide Sea cucumber Immunity Enhancement In vivo mice 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the Marine Bio-Regional Specialization Leading Technology Development Program (D11413914H480000100) funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries in Korea.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Walls J, Sinclair L, Finlay D. Nutrient sensing, signal transduction and immune responses. Semin Immunol. 28: 396–407 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Miccadei S, Masella R, Mileo AM, Gessani S. Omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as immunomodulators in colorectal cancer: New potential role in adjuvant therapies. Front Immunol. 7: 486 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jesenak M, Urbancikova I, Banovcin P. Respiratory tract infections and the role of biologically active polysaccharides in their management and prevention. Nutrients. 9: 779–790 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liu X, Lin Q, Yan Y, Peng F, Sung R, Ren J. Hemicellulose from plant biomass in medical and pharmaceutical application: A critical review. Curr Med Chem. (2017). https://doi.org/10.2174/0929867324666170705113657
  5. 5.
    Patel S, Goyal A. Chitin and chitinase: Role in pathogenicity, allergenicity and health. Int J Biol Macromol. 97: 331–338 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Daien CI, Pinget GV, Tan JK, Macia L. Detrimental impact of microbiota-accessible carbohydrate-deprived diet on gut and immune homeostasis: An overview. Front Immunol. 8: 548 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bordbar S, Anwar F, Saari N. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods—a review. Mar Drugs. 9: 1761–1805 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cao RA, Surayot U, You S. Structural characterization of immunostimulating protein-sulfated fucan complex extracted from the body wall of a sea cucumber, Stichopus japonicus. Int J Biol Macromol. 99: 539–548 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fredalina BD, Ridzwan BH, Abidin AA, Kaswandi MA, Zaiton H, Zali I, Kittakoop P, Jais AM. Fatty acid compositions in local sea cucumber, Stichopus chloronotus, for wound healing. Gen Pharmacol. 33: 337–340 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu X, Sun Z, Zhang M, Meng X, Xia X, Yuan W, Xue F, Liu C. Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of polysaccharides from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Carbohydr Polym. 90: 1664–1670 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ustyuzhanina NE, Bilan MI, Dmitrenok AS, Shashkov AS, Kusaykin MI, Stonik VA, Nifantiev NE, Usov AI. Structure and biological activity of a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from the sea cucumber Cucumaria japonica. Carbohydr Polym. 26: 449–459 (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cao RA, Lee SH, You SG. Structural effects of sulfated-glycoproteins from Stichopus japonicus on the nitric oxide secretion ability of RAW 264.7 cells. Prev Nutr Food Sci. 19: 307–313 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sevag MG, Lackman DB, Smolens J. The isolation of the components of streptococcal nucleoproteins in serologically active form. J Biol Chem. 124: 425–436 (1938)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ray A, Dittel BN. Isolation of mouse peritoneal cavity cells. J Vis Exp. 35: 1488 (2010)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim JK, Cho ML, Karnjanapratum S, Shin IS, You SG. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Enteromorpha prolifera. Int J Biol Macromol. 49: 1051–1058 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Green LC, Wagner DA, Glogowski J, Skipper PL, Wishnok JS, Tannenbaum SR. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and [15N] nitrate in biological fluids. Anal Biochem. 126: 131–138 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang J, Tong X, Li P, Cao H, Su W. Immuno-enhancement effects of Shenqi Fuzheng Injection on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in Balb/c mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 139: 788–795 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Weeks BA, Keisler AS, Myrvik QN, Warinner JE. Differential uptake of neutral red by macrophages from three species of estuarine fish. Dev Comp Immunol. 11: 117–124 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cho CW, Han CJ, Rhee YK, Lee YC, Shin KS, Shin JS, Lee KT, Hong HD. Cheonggukjang polysaccharides enhance immune activities and prevent cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. Int J Biol Macromol. 72: 519–525 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Park HR, Lee HS, Cho SY, Kim YS, Shin KS. Anti-metastatic effect of polysaccharide isolated from Colocasia esculenta is exerted through immunostimulation. Int J Mol Med. 31: 361–368 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sarangi I, Ghosh D, Bhutia SK, Mallick SK, Maiti TK. Anti-tumor and immunomodulating effects of Pleurotus ostreatus mycelia-derived proteoglycans. Int Immunopharmacol. 6: 1287–1297 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Narayanan BA, Narayanan NK, Simi B, Reddy BS. Modulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and related proinflammatory genes by the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in human colon cancer cells. Cancer Res. 63: 972–979 (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bhattacharyya S, Ratajczak CK, Vogt SK, Kelley C, Colonna M, Schreiber RD, Muglia LJ. TAK1 targeting by glucocorticoids determines JNK and IkappaB regulation in Toll-like receptor-stimulated macrophages. Blood. 115: 1921–1931 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method. Methods. 25: 402–408 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yun KJ, Kim JY, Kim JB, Lee KW, Jeong SY, Park HJ, Jung HJ, Cho YW, Yun K, Lee KT. Inhibition of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production by asiatic acid via NF-kappa B inactivation in RAW 264.7 macrophages: possible involvement of the IKK and MAPK pathways. Int Immunopharmacol. 8: 431–441 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Underhill DM, Ozinsky A, Hajjar AM, Stevens A, Wilson CB, Bassetti M, Aderem A. The Toll-like receptor 2 is recruited to macrophage phagosomes and discriminates between pathogens. Nature. 401: 811–815 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bartl MM, Luckenbach T, Bergner O, Ullrich O, Koch-Brandt C. Multiple receptors mediate apoJ-dependent clearance of cellular debris into nonprofessional phagocytes. Exp Cell Res. 271: 130–141 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Navegantes KC, de Souza Gomes R, Pereira PAT, Czaikoski PG, Azevedo CHM, Monteiro MC. Immune modulation of some autoimmune diseases: the critical role of macrophages and neutrophils in the innate and adaptive immunity. J Transl Med. 15: 36 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lori A, Perrotta M, Lembo G, Carnevale D. The spleen: A hub connecting nervous and immune systems in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Int J Mol Sci. 18: 1216–1227 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen X, Nie W, Fan S, Zhang J, Wang Y, Lu J, Jin L. A polysaccharide from Sargassum fusiforme protects against immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide-treated mice. Carbohydr Polym. 90: 1114–1119 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sinkora M, Butler JE. Progress in the use of swine in developmental immunology of B and T lymphocytes. Dev Comp Immunol. 58: 1–17 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    O’Sullivan TE, Sun JC, Lanier LL. Natural Killer Cell Memory. Immunity. 43: 634–645 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Turner MD, Nedjai B, Hurst T, Pennington DJ. Cytokines and chemokines: At the crossroads of cell signalling and inflammatory disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1843: 2563–2582 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Karavitis J, Hix LM, Shi YH, Schultz RF, Khazaie K, Zhang M. Regulation of COX2 expression in mouse mammary tumor cells controls bone metastasis and PGE2-induction of regulatory T cell migration. PLoS One. 7: e46342 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Reynolds JM, Martinez GJ, Chung Y, Dong C. Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in T cells promotes autoimmune inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 109: 13064–13069 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Raphael I, Nalawade S, Eagar TN, Forsthuber TG. T cell subsets and their signature cytokines in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Cytokine. 74: 5–17 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tak PP, Firestein GS. NF-kappaB: a key role in inflammatory diseases. J Clin Invest. 107: 7–11 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kim JB, Han AR, Park EY, Kim JY, Cho W, Lee J, Seo EK, Lee KT. Inhibition of LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2 and cytokines expression by poncirin through the NF-kappaB inactivation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 30: 2345–2351 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cargnello M, Roux PP. Activation and function of the MAPKs and their substrates, the MAPK-activated protein kinases. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 75: 50–83 (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chaiwat Monmai
    • 1
  • Sung Hee Park
    • 1
  • SangGuan You
    • 1
  • Woo Jung Park
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Marine Food Science and TechnologyGangneung-Wonju National UniversityGangneungKorea

Personalised recommendations