Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 105–112 | Cite as

Changes in the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of mustard leaf (Brassica juncea) kimchi extracts during different fermentation periods

  • Seo-Yeon Park
  • Hye-Lim Jang
  • Jong-Hun Lee
  • Youngmin Choi
  • Haengran Kim
  • Jinbong Hwang
  • Dongwon Seo
  • Sanghee Kim
  • Jin-Sik Nam


This study was conducted to investigate the changes in the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activities of 80% methanol and water extracts from mustard leaf kimchi during different fermentation periods. The methanol extract exhibited higher TPC and TFC than the water extract. Both extracts from kimchi fermented for two months showed the highest antioxidant effects against the scavenging activities of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and 2,2-azino-bis diammonium salt (ABTS) radicals. Moreover, the methanol extract from kimchi fermented for two months showed the highest nitrite scavenging activity. The highest metal (Fe2+) chelating effect of the methanol extract and water extract was observed after three months and one month, respectively. Caffeic acid showed the highest increase with fermentation. These findings suggest that the antioxidant activities of kimchi depend on the fermentation period. Accordingly, this study provides basic data for improving the antioxidant activity of mustard leaf kimchi through the establishment of their fermentation period.


mustard leaf kimchi fermentation period antioxidant activity phenolic content 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Zhang Z, Lv G, Pan H, Fan L, Soccol CR, Pandey A. Production of powerful antioxidant supplements via solid-state fermentation of wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn.) by Cordyceps militaris. Food Technol. Biotech. 50: 32–39 (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sandhu KS, Punia S, Kaur M. Effect of duration of solid state fermentation by Aspergillus awamorinakazawa on antioxidant properties of wheat cultivars. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol. 71: 323–328 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shukla S, Park J, Kim DH, Hong SY, Lee JS, Kim M. Total phenolic content, antioxidant, tyrosinase and a-glucosidase inhibitory activities of water soluble extracts of noble starter culture Doenjang, a Korean fermented soybean sauce variety. Food Control 59: 854–861 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Warwick SI, Guge RK, Mc-Donaland T, Falk KC. Genetic variation of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A.Braun) germplasm in western Canada. Genet. Resour. Crop Ev. 53: 297–312 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim HY, Yokozawa T, Cho EJ, Cheigh HS, Choi JS, Chung HY. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects of mustard leaf (Brassica juncea). Phytother. Res. 17: 465–471 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fang Z, Hu Y, Liu D, Chen J, Ye X. Changes of phenolic acids and antioxidant activities during potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) pickling. Food Chem. 108: 811–817 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yoo EJ, Lim HS, Park KO, Choi MR. Cytotoxic, antioxidative and ACE inhibiting activities of Dolsan leaf mustard juice (DLMJ) treated with lactic acid bacteria. Biotechnol. Bioproc. E. 10: 60–66 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jo YS, Park JR, Park SK. Effects of mustard leaf (Brassica juncea) on cholesterol metabolism in rats. J. Nutr. Health 26: 13–20 (1993)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cheigh HS, Park KY, Lee CY. Biochemical, microbiological, and nutritional aspects of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetable products). Crit. Rev. Food Sci. 34: 175–203 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Song ES, Jeon YS, Cheigh HS. Changes in chlorophylls and carotenoids of mustard leaf kimchi during fermentation and their antioxidative activities on the lipid oxidation. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 26: 563–568 (1997)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lim HS, Park KO, Nishizawa N, Bae SO, Choi MR. Cytotoxicity of extracts from Dolsan leaf mustard kimchi treated with lactic acid bacteria on lung and gastric cancer cells. Bioresource Bioprocess. 13: 174–181 (2008)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Oh SK, Tsukamoto C, Kim KW, Choi MR. LC-PDA/MS/MS Analysis of glucosinolates in Dolsan leaf mustard kimchi and Dolsan leaf mustard pickles. Korean Soc. Biotechnol. Bioeng. J. 31: 1–7 (2016)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Folin O, Denis W. On phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic compounds as color reagents. J. Biol. Chem. 12: 239–243 (1912)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jung ES, Lee S, Lim SH, Ha SH, Liu KH, Lee CH. Metabolite profiling of the short-term responses of rice leaves (Oryza sativa cv. Ilmi) cultivated under different LED lights and its correlations with antioxidant activities. Plant Sci. 210: 61–69 (2013)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blois MS. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199–1200 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Bio. Med. 26: 1231–1237 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kato H, Lee IE, Van Chuyen N, Kim SB, Hayase F. Inhibition of nitrosamine formation by nondialyzable melanoidins. Agr. Biol. Chem. Tokyo 51: 1333–1338 (1987)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dinis TCP, Madeira VMC, Almeida LM. Action of phenolic derivatives as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 315: 161–169 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: The FRAP assay. Anal. Biochem. 239: 70–76 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sun YP, Chou CC, Yu RC. Antioxidant activity of lactic-fermented Chinese cabbage. Food Chem. 115: 912–917 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liang CH, Syu JL, Mau JL. Antioxidant properties of solid-state fermented adlay and rice by Phellinus linteus. Food Chem. 116: 841–845 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Park JM, Shin JH, Gu JG, Yoon SJ, Song JC, Jeon WM, Kim JM. Effect of antioxidant activity in kimchi during a short-term and over-ripening fermentation period. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 112: 356–359 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Choi M, Cho K, Nam S. Antioxidant activities and changes in trans-resveratrol and indigestible oligosaccharides according to fermentation periods in Cheonggukjang. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 43: 243–249 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Woo SM, Jeong YJ, Whang K. Effect of germinated brown rice extract powder on free amino acid content, antioxidant and nitrite scavenging ability of the Korean cabbage kimchi. Korean J. Food Preserv. 13: 548–554 (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Huang YH, Lai YJ, Chou CC. Fermentation temperature affects the antioxidant activity of the enzyme-ripened sufu, an oriental traditional fermented product of soybean. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 112: 49–53 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hur SJ, Lee SY, Kim YC, Choi I, Kim GB. Effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity in plant-based foods. Food Chem. 160: 346–356 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee IH, Hung YH, Chou CC. Solid-state fermentation with fungi to enhance the antioxidative activity, total phenolic and anthocyanin contents of black bean. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 121: 150–156 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ju HK, Cho EJ, Jang MH, Lee YY, Hong SS, Park JH, Kwon SW. Characterization of increased phenolic compounds from fermented Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) and related antioxidant activity. J. Pharmaceut. Biomed. 49: 820–827 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Curiel JA, Rodríguez H, Landete JM, Landete JM, Rivas B, Muñoz R. Ability of Lactobacillus brevis strains to degrade food phenolic acids. Food Chem. 120: 225–229 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jabloñska-Ryoe E, Slawiñska A, Szwajgier D. Effect of lactic acid fermentation on antioxidant properties and phenolic acid contents of oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus) and chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius) mushrooms. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 25: 439–444 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim JH, Baik SH. Preparation and characterization of fermented dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) beverage using Lactobacillus acidophilus F46 having cinnamoyl esterase activity. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 24: 583–593 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jamal P, Idris ZM, Alam MZ. Effects of physicochemical parameters on the production of phenolic acids from palm oil mill effluent under liquid-state fermentation by Aspergillus niger IBS-103ZA. Food Chem. 124: 1595–1602 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seo-Yeon Park
    • 1
  • Hye-Lim Jang
    • 1
  • Jong-Hun Lee
    • 1
  • Youngmin Choi
    • 2
  • Haengran Kim
    • 2
  • Jinbong Hwang
    • 3
  • Dongwon Seo
    • 3
  • Sanghee Kim
    • 3
  • Jin-Sik Nam
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Food Analysis Research CenterSuwon Women’s UniversityHwaseong, GyeonggiKorea
  2. 2.Functional Food & Nutrition Division, National Institute of Agricultural SciencesRDAWanju, JeonbukKorea
  3. 3.Korea Food Research Institute, SeongnamGyeonggiKorea
  4. 4.Department of Food and NutritionSuwon Women’s UniversityHwaseong, GyeonggiKorea

Personalised recommendations