Two cases of ADA2 deficiency presenting as childhood polyarteritis nodosa: novel ADA2 variant, atypical CNS manifestations, and literature review

Abstract

Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is an autosomal recessive disease resulting from loss-of-function pathogenic variants in ADA2 gene, which might resemble polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). The authors present two pediatric cases of ADA2 deficiency with phenotypic manifestations of PAN, including an unusual presentation with spinal cord ischemia. Also described is an assessment of ADA2 activity and gene expression profiling with description of a previously unreported homozygous variant, c.1226C > A (p.(Pro409His)), detected in a patient with consanguineous parents, confirmed by near-absent ADA2 plasma enzymatic activity. The authors suggest to first obtain enzymatic activity, whenever DADA2 is suspected, before proceeding to genetic testing, due to its excellent cost-effective results. Moreover, physicians must be aware of this monogenic disorder, especially in the case of early-onset PAN-like manifestations, having a family member with similar manifestations or having consanguineous parents suggesting an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. Given the multi-organ involvement, recognizing the diverse manifestations is a crucial step towards timely diagnosis and management of this potentially fatal but often treatable syndrome.

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Correspondence to Sara Ganhão.

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Ganhão, S., Loureiro, G.B., Oliveira, D.R. et al. Two cases of ADA2 deficiency presenting as childhood polyarteritis nodosa: novel ADA2 variant, atypical CNS manifestations, and literature review. Clin Rheumatol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-020-05210-4

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Keywords

  • ADA2
  • Adenosine deaminase 2
  • Auto-inflammation
  • CECR1 gene
  • Monogenic vasculitis
  • Novel mutation
  • Polyarteritis nodosa