Clinical phenotypes based on clinical prognostic factors in patients with secondary hip osteoarthritis: preliminary findings from a prospective cohort study

Abstract

Objectives

Recently, several clinical prognostic factors for hip osteoarthritis (OA) progression such as spinal malalignment, reduced spinal mobility, and excessive daily cumulative hip loading have been identified. This study aimed to identify clinical phenotypes based on clinical prognostic factors in patients with secondary hip OA using data from prospective cohort studies and to define the clinical features of each phenotype.

Methods

Fifty patients participated. Two-step cluster analysis was performed to identify the phenotypes using the following potential prognostic factors for hip OA progression: spinal inclination in standing, thoracolumbar spine mobility, daily cumulative hip moment, and minimum joint space width (JSW) at baseline. Comprehensive basic and clinical features (age, body mass index, hip pain, Harris hip score, JSW, radiographic hip morphology, hip impairments, spinal alignment and mobility, and gait-related variables) and ratio of progressors in 12 months were compared among the phenotypes using bootstrap method (unadjusted and adjusted for age).

Results

Three phenotypes were identified and each phenotype was characterized as follows (P < 0.05): phenotype 1 (30%)—relatively young age and higher daily cumulative hip loading; phenotype 2 (42.0%)—relatively older age, reduced JSW, and less spinal mobility; and phenotype 3 (28.0%)—changed thoracic spine alignment and less spinal (especially in the thoracic spine) mobility. The ratio of progressors among the phenotypes was not statistically significantly different. These characteristics remained after adjustment for age.

Conclusion

Three phenotypes with similar progression risk were identified. This finding will help in designing treatment tailored to each phenotype for hip OA progression prevention.

Key Points
• Three phenotypes with similar progression risk were identified based on clinical prognostic factors.
• Phenotype 1 was characterized by young age and higher daily cumulative hip loading.
• Phenotype 2 was relatively old age and had reduced JSW and less spinal mobility.
• Phenotype 3 had changed thoracic spine alignment and less thoracic spine mobility.

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Fig. 1

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Acknowledgments

We wish to thank all volunteers who participated in this study for their participation. The authors would also like to thank Junji Katsuhira, Rui Tsukagoshi, Yoshihiro Fukumoto, Yumiko Koyama, and Momoko Yamagata for their assistance in the acquisition of data and the kinematic and kinetic analysis.

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Correspondence to Hiroshige Tateuchi.

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Tateuchi, H., Akiyama, H., Goto, K. et al. Clinical phenotypes based on clinical prognostic factors in patients with secondary hip osteoarthritis: preliminary findings from a prospective cohort study. Clin Rheumatol 39, 2207–2217 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-020-04988-7

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Keywords

  • Gait
  • Hip osteoarthritis
  • Phenotype
  • Progression
  • Spine