The role of socioeconomic status in the susceptibility to develop systemic lupus erythematosus in Mexican patients

Abstract

Introduction

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder for which Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes are well-identified as risk factors. SLE patients have different phenotypes or clinical presentations, which vary among Mexicans. This variation could be explained by ethnicity and admixture. Since socioeconomic status probably limits and change the patterns of migration, this factor could favor inbreeding and homogamy in some geographic areas. Consequently, it could alter or restrict the possibilities of admixture too. Therefore, the socioeconomic status may also have implications in the susceptibility and the clinical heterogeneity of SLE in Mexican patients.

Methods

One hundred twenty-three SLE patients and 234 healthy individuals with Mexican admixed ancestry were recruited. HLA alleles were analyzed using the HLA typing method based on Sequence-based typing (SBT).

Results

As expected, it was found an increased frequency of the HLA-DRB1*03:01 allele in all socioeconomic groups when compared with healthy individuals. The susceptibility allele found in the low-income SLE patients was HLA-DRB1*04:05 whereas, the susceptibility alleles for the high-income SLE patients were HLA-DRB1*07:01 (pC = 0.03, OR = 2.0) and HLA-DRB1*11:04 (pC = 0.0004, OR = 5.1). Additionally, the frequencies of two protective alleles HLA-DRB1*14:06 (pC = 0.01, OR = 0.28) and HLA-DRB1*16:02 (pC = 0.04, OR = 0.22) were found diminished. These findings correlate with the admixture differences between low-income and high-income SLE patients. The clinical manifestations showed a different distribution between both groups. Arthritis and neurological disorder were prevalent in low-income SLE patients, while the hematological disorder was prevalent in high-income SLE patients.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that HLA class II DRB1 genes contribute to the susceptibility and protection to develop SLE differently depending on socioeconomic status. Due to this, the clinical manifestations vary among patients and it could be related to different admixture charge.

Key Point
HLA class II DRB1 genes contribute to the susceptibility and protection to develop SLE differently depending on socioeconomic status.

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Acknowledgments

The authors thank all individuals with SLE and healthy individuals who have participated in this genetic study.

Funding

This work was supported by grant no. 000 000 000273175 from the CONACYT (Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología de México).

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Correspondence to Julio Granados.

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The Ethics Committee from the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán reviewed and approved the protocol for this genetic study.

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Salgado-Galicia, N.A., Hernández-Doño, S., Ruiz-Gómez, D. et al. The role of socioeconomic status in the susceptibility to develop systemic lupus erythematosus in Mexican patients. Clin Rheumatol 39, 2151–2161 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-020-04928-5

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Keywords

  • High-income
  • HLA-DRB1 alleles
  • Low-income
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus