Anisotropy of quartz mica schist based on quantitative extraction of fabric information

Abstract

In this study, comprehensive laboratory experiments, such as thin-section and optical section analyses and P wave velocity and uniaxial compression tests, are performed on three types of quartz mica schist samples. The thin-section analysis reveals that the schist predominately consists of flaky mica and granular minerals, including quartz, feldspar, and calcite. The two types of minerals, both presenting a certain degree of orientation, are arranged to form a quasi-bedded structure as a whole, which essentially leads to macroscopic physicomechanic anisotropy. By means of optical section observation, directional microfissures are found to mainly be distributed alongside the edge of the oriented mica layer, while defects in other parts exhibit irregular orientation. Moreover, quantitative information is extracted from gray images by Image-Pro Plus (IPP), and then, relevant indicators are proposed to quantitatively analyze the differences in the content, morphology, and distribution characteristics of minerals and defects among the three types of samples. P wave velocity measurements of dry cylindrical specimens with different schistosity angles α show that the minimum value lies in the direction of the transverse schistosity planes (α = 90°) and that the P wave velocity increases with the decrease of the schistosity angle. There is an obvious linear positive correlation between the orientation coefficient of mica, which is adopted to indirectly reflect the orientation degree of microfissure, and the 0.5 power of the velocity anisotropy coefficient. The uniaxial compression test of specimens reveals the anisotropic characteristics of the peak strength, failure mode, and crack initiation and propagation for the schist samples. In particular, with the change of the schistosity angle, the peak strength and crack initiation strength have a U shape, characterized by a minimum value at α = 30° and maximum value at α = 0° or 90°. Directional microfissures and irregular defects with a dominant angle control the crack initiation of the specimens with 0° ≤ α ≤ 45° and 45° < α ≤ 90°, respectively. The weak edge of the directional mica layers has a more or less guiding effect on crack propagation when compressive loading is applied obliquely to the schistosity planes, while crack propagation is independent of weak edges when perpendicular to the planes. Three failure modes occur in the specimens with the change of the schistosity angle: tension-splitting failure, shear-slip failure, and shear failure. It is found that the mechanical anisotropy properties of the schist samples are closely associated with the content, morphology, and distribution characteristics of minerals and defects based on the analyses of the macro- and microquantitative data.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18

References

  1. Ali E, Guang W, Zhiming Z, Weixue J (2014) Assessments of strength anisotropy and deformation behavior of banded amphibolite rocks. Geotech Geol Eng 32(2):429–438

    Google Scholar 

  2. Amann F, Ündül Ö, Kaiser PK (2013) Crack initiation and crack propagation in heterogeneous sulfate-rich clay rocks. Rock Mech Rock Eng

  3. Attewell PB, Sandford MR (1974) Intrinsic shear strength of a brittle, anisotropic rock—I: experimental and mechanical interpretation. Int J Rock Mech Mining Sci 11(1):423–430

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bieniawski ZT (1967) Mechanism of brittle failure of rock part I—theory of fracture process. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 4(4):395–406

    Google Scholar 

  5. Brace WF, Paulding BR, Scholz C (1966) Dilatancy in fracture of crystalline rocks. J Geophys Res 71(16):3939–3953

    Google Scholar 

  6. Brown ET, Richards LR, Barr MV (1977) Shear strength characteristics of Delabole slates. Proc. Conf. Rock Eng. Tyne, Newcastle, pp 31–51

    Google Scholar 

  7. Chen TY, Feng XT, Zhang XW, Chao WD, Fu CJ (2014) Experimental study on mechanical and anisotropic properties of black shale. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 33(9):1772–1779

    Google Scholar 

  8. Chenevert ME, Gatlin C (1965) Mechanical anisotropies of laminated sedimentary rocks. Soc Pet Eng J 5(01):67–77

    Google Scholar 

  9. Cho JW, Kim H, Jeon S, Min KB (2012) Deformation and strength anisotropy of Asan gneiss, Boryeong shale, and Yeoncheon schist. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 50:158–169

    Google Scholar 

  10. Cholach PY, Schmitt DR (2006) Intrinsic elasticity of a textured transversely isotropic muscovite aggregate: comparisons to the seismic anisotropy of schists and shales. J Geophys Res 111(B9):B09410

    Google Scholar 

  11. Corthesy R, Gill DE, Leite MH (1993) An integrated approach to rock stress measurement in anisotropic non-linear elastic rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 30(4):395–411

    Google Scholar 

  12. Deer WA, Howie RA, Zussman J (1964) Rock-forming minerals. Sheet Silicates, Pitman, London

    Google Scholar 

  13. Deklotz EJ, Brown JW, Stemler OA (1966) Anisotropy of a schistose gneiss. 1st Congress of International Society for Rock Mechanics, Lisbon, pp 465–470

  14. Diederichs MS, Kaiser PK, Eberhardt E (2004) Damage initiation and propagation in hard rock during tunnelling and the influence of near-face stress rotation. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 41(5):785–812

    Google Scholar 

  15. Donath FA (1964) Strength variation and deformational behavior in anisotropic rock. State of stress in the Earth’s Crust. In: Judd WR (ed) . Elsevier, New York, pp 281–297

    Google Scholar 

  16. Eberhardt E, Stead D, Stimpson B, Read RS (1998) Identifying crack initiation and propagation thresholds in brittle rock. Can Geotech J 35(2):222–233

    Google Scholar 

  17. Erdogan F, Sih GC (1963) On the crack extension in plates under plane loading and transverse shear. J Basic Eng 85:519–527

    Google Scholar 

  18. Gholami R, Rasouli V (2014) Mechanical and elastic properties of transversely isotropic slate. Rock Mech Rock Eng 47(5):1763–1773

    Google Scholar 

  19. Heng S, Yang CH, Zhang BP, Guo YT, Wang L, Wei YL (2015) Experimental research on anisotropic properties of shale. Rock Soil Mech 36(3):609–616

    Google Scholar 

  20. Hoek E (1964) Fracture of anisotropic rock. J South Afr Inst Min Metall 64(10):501–523

    Google Scholar 

  21. Horino, FG, Ellickson, ML (1970) A method of estimating the strength of rock containing planes of weakness. Report of Investigation 744.US Bureau of Mines

  22. Irwin GR (1957) Analysis of stress and strains near the end of a crack extension force. J Appl Mech 24:361–364

    Google Scholar 

  23. Khanlari G, Rafiei B, Abdilor Y (2015) An experimental investigation of the Brazilian tensile strength and failure patterns of laminated sandstones. Rock Mech Rock Eng 48(2):843–852

    Google Scholar 

  24. Kim H, Cho JW, Song I, Min KB (2012) Anisotropy of elastic moduli, P-wave velocities, and thermal conductivities of Asan gneiss, Boryeong shale, and Yeoncheon schist in Korea. Eng Geol 147-148(5):68–77

    Google Scholar 

  25. Kuila U, Dewhurst DN, Siggins AF, Raven MD (2011) Stress anisotropy and velocity anisotropy in low porosity shale. Tectonophysics 503(1–2):34–44

    Google Scholar 

  26. Lajtai EZ (1974) Brittle fracture in compression. Int J Fract 10(4):525–536

    Google Scholar 

  27. Li D, Wong LNY, Liu G, Zhang XP (2012) Influence of water content and anisotropy on the strength and deformability of low porosity meta-sedimentary rocks under triaxial compression. Eng Geol 126:46–66

    Google Scholar 

  28. Mccabe WM, Koerner RM (1975) High pressure shear strength investigation of an anisotropic mica schist rock. Int J Rock Mech Mining Sci 12(8):219–228

    Google Scholar 

  29. Mclamore R, Gray KE (1967) The mechanical behavior of anisotropic sedimentary rocks. J Eng Ind 89(1):62–73

    Google Scholar 

  30. Nasseri MH, Rao K, Ramamurthy T (2003) Transversely isotropic strength and deformational behavior of Himalayan schists. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 40:3–23

    Google Scholar 

  31. Nicksiar M, Martin CD (2012) Evaluation of methods for determining crack initiation in compression tests on low-porosity rocks. Rock Mech Rock Eng 45(4):607–617

    Google Scholar 

  32. Qi JF, Sui WH, Zang GL, Xu JS (2014) Calculation and analysis of the porosity and fractal dimension of red stratum sandstone based on SEM images processing. J Eng Geol 22(Suppl):339–345

    Google Scholar 

  33. Ramamurthy T (1994) Strength and modulus responses of anisotropic rocks. In: Hudson, J.A., ED., Compressive Rock Engineering, Vol.1, Pergamon, Oxford, 313–329

  34. Ramamurthy T, Rao GV, Singh J (1993) Engineering behaviour of phyllites. Eng Geol 33(3):209–225

    Google Scholar 

  35. Shan ZG, Chen GQ, Zhou CH, Wang JX, Shen YS (2013) Mechanical properties and rock mass quality classification of quartz mica schist for danba hydropower station. Chin J Rock Mech Eng 32(10):2071–2078

    Google Scholar 

  36. Singh J, Ramamurthy T, Rao GV (1989) Strength anisotropies in rocks. Ind Geotech J 19(2):147–166

    Google Scholar 

  37. Vanorio T, Mukerji T, Mavko G (2008) Emerging methodologies to characterize the rock physics properties of organic-rich shales. Lead Edge 27(6):780–787

    Google Scholar 

  38. Vaughan MT, Guggenheim S (1986) Elasticity of muscovite and its relationship to crystal structure. J Geophys Res 91(B5):4657–4664

    Google Scholar 

  39. Voss RF, Laibowitz RB, Allesandrini EI (1991) Fractal geometry of percolation in thin gold films. Scaling Phenomena in Disordered Systems. Springer US

  40. Yao Z, Ding WX, Wang JJ (1996) A study on anisotropy and normalization of the rockmass elastic wave velocity in a dam foundation at the upper reach of yellowriver. J Geol Hazard Environ Pres 7(2):38–43

  41. Yin XM, Yan EC, Wang LN, Chen L (2019) Quantitative microstructure information extraction and microscopic morphology analysis of anisotropic schist. Rock Soil Mech 40(7):2617–2629

    Google Scholar 

  42. Yong MT, Ming CK (2001) A failure criterion for transversely isotropic rocks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 38(3):399–412

    Google Scholar 

  43. Zhang XM (2007) Anisotropic characteristic of rock material and its effect on stability of tunnel surrounding rock, PhD Thesis, Central South University

  44. Zhang XP, Wong LNY, Wang SJ, Han GY (2012) Engineering properties of quartz mica schist. Eng Geol 121:135–149

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This research is financially supported by the Nanhu Scholars Program of Xinyang Normal University and the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 41807240).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xiaomeng Yin.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yin, X., Yan, E., Wang, L. et al. Anisotropy of quartz mica schist based on quantitative extraction of fabric information. Bull Eng Geol Environ 79, 2439–2456 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-019-01699-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Schist
  • Anisotropy
  • Microscopic fabric
  • Crack initiation strength
  • P wave velocity