Advertisement

Development characteristics and formation analysis of Baixiang earth fissure on North China plain

  • Jishan Xu
  • Jianbing PengEmail author
  • Yahong Deng
  • Feiyong Wang
Original Paper
  • 243 Downloads

Abstract

The Baixiang earth fissure is a typical earth fissure developed on the North China Plain, about 12 km in length, with NE40° trending, distinct linear emergence, and in good agreement with the South Baixiang fault. Its formation was the result of internal tectonic factors and external dynamic factors. The trenching and drilling data show that the strata in the earth fissure development zone have a striking “two-element” structure: the upper thick silty clay formation and the lower thick sand formation, providing the necessary space for the development of an earth fissure. The seismic exploration data show that the width of the developed earth fissure zone is determined by the fault structure buried at a certain depth under the strata and the horizontal stretching of the overburden. Constrained by such geological structure and stratal properties, a series of small “tensile cracks” are developed at different depths in the development zone. They are further affected by phenomena, such as formation compression and collapse, which are caused by groundwater seepage and sediment laden water migration in the lower sand formation under the influences of external factors (such as groundwater withdrawal and man-made concentrated irrigation). These cracks hence cut through to the earth surface and a cascade of cracks in a certain direction form linear surface fissures. This study importantly reveals the correlation mechanism between the various factors of earth fissures and the transformation mechanism of regional tectonic movements from deep to surface.

Keywords

Earth fissure North China plain Land subsidence Groundwater Xingtai earthquake 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 2017XKQY99) and the Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD).

References

  1. Auvinet C, Mendez E, Lermo J (2010) Advances in geotechnical characterization of soil fracturing in Mexico City basin. In: CarreonFreyre D, Cerca M, Galloway DL, SilvaCorona JJ (eds) Land subsidence, associated hazards and the role of natural resources development. IAHS, Wallingford, pp 33–38Google Scholar
  2. Brown S, Nicholls RJ (2015) Subsidence and human influences in mega deltas: The case of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna. Sci Total Environ 527:362–374.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.124
  3. Bufarale G, O’Leary M, Stevens A, Collins LB (2017) Sea level controls on palaeochannel development within the swan river estuary during the late Pleistocene to Holocene. Catena 153:131–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2017.02.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Helm DC (1994) Hydraulic forces that play a role in generating fissures at depth. Environ Eng Geosci 31(3):31–33.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gseegeosci.xxxi.3.293 Google Scholar
  5. Jachens RC, Holzer TL (1982) Differential compaction mechanism for earth fissures near Casa Grande, Arizona. Geol Soc Am Bull 93(10):998–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Jia SX, Wang FY, Tian XF, Duan YH, Zhang JS, Liu BF, Lin JY (2014) Crustal structure and tectonic study of North China craton from a long deep seismic sounding profile. Tectonophysics 627:48–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2014.04.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lewin J, Macklin MG, Johnstone E (2005) Interpreting alluvial archives: sedimentological factors in the British Holocene fluvial record. Quat Sci Rev 24(16-17):1873–1889.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Li ZM, Yang XD, Lan JM, Tong JQ (2010) An analysis of earth fissure at Baixiang county, Xingtai City. Hydrogeol Eng Geol 37(2):135–138 in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  9. Liu C, Shi YL, Zheng L, Zhu BJ (2012) Relation between earthquake spatial distribution and tectonic stress accumulation in the North China Basin based on 3D visco-elastic modelling. Chinese J Geophys-Ch 55(12):3942–3957.  https://doi.org/10.6038/j.issn.0001-5733.2012.12.007
  10. Lofgren BE (1978) Hydraulic stresses cause ground movement and fissures, Picacho, Arizona. Geol Soc Am Abstr Programs 10(3):113Google Scholar
  11. Lu X, Zhao L, Lun Z (1989) Regional geology of Hebei province, Beijing municipality and Tianjin municipality. Geological Publishing, Beijing in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  12. Oldknow CJ, Hooke JM (2017) Alluvial terrace development and changing landscape connectivity in the great Karoo, South Africa. Insights from the Wilgerbosch Riyer catchment, Sneeuberg. Geomorphology 288:12–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2017.03.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Peng JB, Sun XH, Wang W, Sun GC (2016a) Characteristics of land subsidence, earth fissures and related disaster chain effects with respect to urban hazards in Xi'an, China. Environ Earth Sci 75(16).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-5928-3
  14. Peng JB, Xu JS, Ma RY, Wang FY (2016b) Characteristics and mechanism of the Longyao ground fissure on North China plain, China. Eng Geol 214:136–146.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enggeo.2016.10.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pu RH, Zhu L, Zhong HL (2009) 3-D seismic identification and characterization of ancient channel morphology. J Earth Sci 20(5):858–867.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-009-0072-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sheng ZP, Helm DC, Li J (2003) Mechanisms of earth fissuring caused by groundwater withdrawal. Environ Eng Geosci 9(4):351–362.  https://doi.org/10.2113/9.4.351 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wang XY, Sun L, Wang ZL, Liu CL, Zhang Y (2014) An analysis of the resilience capacity of soils in North China: a study on land subsidence treatment. Bull Eng Geol Environ 73(3):723–731.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-013-0561-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Wang GY, You G, Zhu JQ, Yu J, Li W (2016) Earth fissures in Su-xi-Chang region, Jiangsu, China. Surv Geophys 37(6):1095–1116.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10712-016-9388-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wu L, Wang L (2010) Present water resources and its sustainable utilization in Xingtai County. Adv Sci Tech Water Resour 30(S1):142–145Google Scholar
  20. Wu ZH, Zhao XT, Ma YS, Zhao X, Zhao T, Yang SZ, Gao LZ (2010) Late Cenozoic geomorphology, geochronology and physiography of Yuntaishan in southern Taihang Mountain, North China. Acta Geol Sin-Engl 84(1):230–239Google Scholar
  21. Xiao LX, Zhu YQ, Li P, Yang T (2000) A possible mechanism of crustal deformation before large earthquake of Xingtai in 1966. Chinese J Geophys-Ch 43(5):646–656Google Scholar
  22. Xu JS, Meng LC, An HB, Wang LY (2015) The bending mechanism of Anping ground fissure in the Hebei plain, North China. Environ Earth Sci 74(9):6859–6870.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-015-4670-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Xu LQ, Li SZ, Cao XZ, Somerville ID, Suo YH, Liu X, Dai LM, Zhao SJ, Guo LL, Wang PC, Cao HH (2016) Holocene intracontinental deformation of the northern North China plain: evidence of tectonic ground fissures. J Asian Earth Sci 119:49–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2016.01.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Yang L, Li Q (1980) Crustal stress field in North China. Seismological Press, Beijing in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  25. Yin S, Han Y, Zhang Y, Zhang J (2016) Depletion control and analysis for groundwater protection and sustainability in the Xingtai region of China. Environ Earth Sci 75(18).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-6044-0

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.China University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina
  2. 2.School of Geology Engineering and GeomaticsChang’an UniversityXi’anChina
  3. 3.Institute of Geo-hazards MitigationChang’an UniversityXi’anChina
  4. 4.Key Laboratory of Western Mineral Resources and Geological Engineering Ministry of EducationChang’an UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations