Journal of Artificial Organs

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 138–141 | Cite as

Differences in clotting parameters between species for preclinical large animal studies of cardiovascular devices

  • Toshihide Mizuno
  • Tomonori Tsukiya
  • Yoshiaki Takewa
  • Eisuke Tatsumi
Original Article Artificial Heart (Basic)


Several species of domestic animals are used in preclinical studies evaluating the safety and feasibility of medical devices; however, the relevance of animal models to human health is often not clear. The purpose of this study was to compare the clotting parameters of animal models to determine which animals most adequately mimic human clotting parameters. The clotting parameters of the different species were assessed in whole blood by in vitro thromboelastography using the clotting activators, such as tissue factor (extrinsic clotting screening test, EXTEM®) and partial thromboplastin phospholipid (intrinsic clotting screening test, IINTEM®). The measurements were performed using normal blood samples from humans (n = 13), calves (n = 18), goats (n = 56) and pigs (n = 8). Extrinsic clotting time (CT) and the intrinsic CT were significantly prolonged in calves compared to humans (249.9 ± 91.3 and 376.4 ± 124.4 s vs. 63.5 ± 11.8 and 192.5 ± 29.0 s, respectively, p < 0.01). The maximum clot firmness (MCF) in domestic animals (EXTEM®: 77–87 mm, IINTEM®: 66–78 mm) was significantly higher than that of humans (EXTEM®: 59.1 ± 6.0 mm, IINTEM®: 58.8 ± 1.5 mm, p < 0.01), and calves and goats exhibited longer time to MCF (MCF-t) than did humans and pigs (p < 0.01). Our results show that there are relevant differences in the four species’ extrinsic and intrinsic clotting parameters. These cross-comparisons indicate that it is necessary to clarify characteristics of clotting properties in preclinical animal studies.


Clotting Animals Thromboelastography Medical devices Preclinical study 



This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP17K10745.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society for Artificial Organs 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toshihide Mizuno
    • 1
  • Tomonori Tsukiya
    • 1
  • Yoshiaki Takewa
    • 1
  • Eisuke Tatsumi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Artificial OrgansNational Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research InstituteSuitaJapan

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