Optical Review

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 349–355 | Cite as

Non-imaging ray-tracing for sputtering simulation with apodization

  • Chung-Jen Ou
Regular Paper


Although apodization patterns have been adopted for the analysis of sputtering sources, the analytical solutions for the film thickness equations are yet limited to only simple conditions. Empirical formulations for thin film sputtering lacking the flexibility in dealing with multi-substrate conditions, a suitable cost-effective procedure is required to estimate the film thickness distribution. This study reports a cross-discipline simulation program, which is based on discrete particle Monte-Carlo methods and has been successfully applied to a non-imaging design to solve problems associated with sputtering uniformity. Robustness of the present method is first proved by comparing it with a typical analytical solution. Further, this report also investigates the overall all effects cause by the sizes of the deposited substrate, such that the determination of the distance between the target surface and the apodization index can be complete. This verifies the capability of the proposed method for solving the sputtering film thickness problems. The benefit is that an optical thin film engineer can, using the same optical software, design a specific optical component and consider the possible coating qualities with thickness tolerance, during the design stage.


Film thickness Uniformity Apodization 



Ministry of Science and Technology (Taiwan) MOST 106-2221-E-164-006 and MOST 106-EPA-F-017-001. The author appreciates Prof. Neng-Fu Shih and Prof. Chien-Han Lin for valuable discussion, cooperation and presentation for ISSP 2011 conferences.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Optical Society of Japan 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hsiuping Solar Observatory, Department of Energy and Material TechnologyHsiuping University of Science and TechnologyTaichungTaiwan, ROC

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