Review: Characterization, evolution, and environmental issues of karst water systems in Northern China

  • Yongping Liang
  • Xubo Gao
  • Chunhong Zhao
  • Chunlei Tang
  • Haoyong Shen
  • Zhiheng Wang
  • Yanxin Wang
Paper
  • 44 Downloads

Abstract

In Northern China, karst systems in widely distributed carbonate rocks are one of the most important water supplies for local inhabitants. Constrained by the specific geological and geomorphological conditions, most karst water in this region is discharged as individual or groups of springs. This paper summarizes the characteristics, chemistry, and environmental quality of these karst systems in Northern China. Five structural models of karst water systems were identified based on the relationships between the karst geological strata and karst groundwater flow fields. These specific structural models may closely relate to the attendant environmental geological issues and consistent risks from pollution. Over the past 40 years, the karst water systems in Northern China have suffered from various environmental problems, including deteriorating water quality, the drying up of springs, a continuous decline in the level of karst water, and so on. Based on the field investigation and previous data, a preliminary summary is provided of the environmental problems related to the development and evolutionary trends of karst water in this region. The results highlight the significant challenges associated with karst water, and it is essential that all segments of society be made aware of the situation in order to demand change. In addition, the study provides a scientific basis for the management, protection, and sustainable utilization of karst water resources.

Keywords

Karst Characterization Structural models Environmental issues China 

Revue: Caractérisation, évolution, et questions environnementales des systèmes hydrogéologiques karstiques du Nord de la Chine

Résumé

Dans le Nord de la Chine, les systèmes karstiques qui se développent dans les roches carbonatées largement répandues constituent l’une des sources d’approvisionnement en eau plus importantes pour les habitants. Contrainte par les conditions spécifiques géologiques et géomorphologiques, la plupart des eaux karstiques émergent de sources individuelles ou de groupes de sources. Cet article résume les caractéristiques, la chimie et la qualité environnementale de ces systèmes karstiques du Nord de la Chine. Cinq modèles structuraux de systèmes hydrogéologiques karstiques ont été identifiés à partir des relations entre les couches géologiques karstiques et les domaines karstiques d’écoulements d’eaux souterraines. Ces modèles structuraux spécifiques peuvent être étroitement liés aux questions géologiques environnementales et aux risques cohérents de contamination. Au cours des 40 dernières années, les systèmes hydrogéologiques karstiques du Nord de la Chine ont souffert de différents problèmes environnementaux, y compris la dégradation de la qualité de l’eau, le tarissement des sources, une diminution continue de la charge hydraulique au sein des karsts, et ainsi de suite. Sur la base d’étude de terrain et de données antérieures, un résumé préliminaire concernant les problèmes environnementaux associés au développement et aux tendances évolutives de l’eau karstique dans cette région est. fourni. Les résultats mettent en évidence les défis significatifs associés à la qualité de l’eau karstique, et il est. essentiel que tous les segments de la société soient sensibilisés à la situation afin d’exiger un changement. En outre, l’étude fournit une base scientifique pour la gestion, la protection, et une utilization durable des ressources karstiques en eau.

Revisión: Caracterización, evolución y problemas ambientales de los sistemas de agua kárstica en el Norte de China

Resumen

En el norte de China, los sistemas kársticos, ampliamente distribuidos en rocas carbonatadas, son uno de los suministros de agua más importantes para los habitantes locales. Restringida por las condiciones geológicas y geomorfológicas específicas, la mayor parte del agua kárstica en esta región se descarga como manantiales individuales o en grupo. Este trabajo resume las características, la química y la calidad ambiental de estos sistemas kársticos en el norte de China. Se identificaron cinco modelos estructurales de sistemas de agua kárstica basados ​​en las relaciones entre los estratos geológicos y los campos de flujo de agua subterránea kárstica. Estos modelos estructurales específicos pueden relacionarse estrechamente con problemas geológicos ambientales y los riesgos constantes de la contaminación. En los últimos 40 años, los sistemas de agua kárstica en el norte de China han sufrido diversos problemas medioambientales, como el deterioro de la calidad del agua, el agotamiento de los manantiales, una disminución continua del nivel de agua kárstica, etc. Con base en la investigación de campo y los datos previos, se proporciona un resumen preliminar de los problemas ambientales relacionados con el desarrollo y las tendencias evolutivas del agua kárstica en esta región. Los resultados ponen de relieve los importantes desafíos asociados con el agua kárstica, y es esencial que todos los segmentos de la sociedad estén al tanto de la situación para poder exigir un cambio. Además, el estudio proporciona una base científica para la gestión, protección y utilización sostenible de los recursos hídricos kársticos.

综述:中国北方岩溶水系统特征描述、演化和环境问题

摘要

中国北方广泛分布的碳酸盐岩中的岩溶系统是当地居民最重要的供水水源之一。受特殊的地质和地貌条件约束,这个地区大多数岩溶水以单个泉或泉群的形式排泄。本文概述了中国北方这些岩溶系统的特征、化学成分和环境质量。根据岩溶水系统和岩溶地下水水流场之间的相互关系,确定了岩溶水系统五种构造模型。这些特殊的构造模型可与伴随的环境地质问题和污染产生的一贯风险密切相关。在过去的40年,中国北方的岩溶水系统遭遇各种各样的环境问题,包括水质下降、泉干涸、岩溶水水位持续下降等等。 在野外调查和先前的资料基础上,概述了本地区与岩溶水开发和演化趋势相关的环境问题。结果强调了与岩溶水相关的重要挑战,最重要的是,使全社会各部门意识到目前的形势,以便采取改进措施。另外,研究成果为岩溶水资源的管理、保护和可持续利用提供了科学依据。

Revisão: Caracterização, evolução e questões ambientais dos sistemas hídricos cársticos no Norte da China

Resumo

No norte da China, os sistemas cársticos em rochas carbonáticas amplamente distribuídas são um dos mais importantes suprimentos de água para os habitantes locais. Forçada pelas condições geológicas e geomorfológicas específicas, a maioria das águas cársticas nesta região é descarregada individualmente ou em grupos de nascentes. Este artigo resume as características, a química e a qualidade ambiental desses sistemas cársticos no norte da China. Cinco modelos estruturais de sistemas hídricos cársticos foram identificados com base nas relações entre os estratos geológicos cársticos e os campos de fluxo de águas subterrâneas cársticas. Estes modelos estruturais específicos podem estar intimamente relacionados com as questões geológicas ambientais associadas e os riscos consistentes da poluição. Nos últimos 40 anos, os sistemas hídricos cársticos no norte da China sofreram com vários problemas ambientais, incluindo a deterioração da qualidade da água, o secamento de nascentes, um declínio contínuo no nível de água cárstica e assim por diante. Com base na investigação de campo e em dados anteriores, é apresentado um resumo preliminar dos problemas ambientais relacionados ao desenvolvimento e às tendências evolutivas da água cárstica nessa região. Os resultados destacam os desafios significativos associados à água cársica, e é essencial que todos os segmentos da sociedade sejam conscientizados da situação a fim de exigir mudanças. Além disso, o estudo fornece uma base científica para a gestão, proteção e utilização sustentável dos recursos hídricos cársticos.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Dr. Felix Mwiathi Njagi for his help in reviewing the English. The authors are thankful to the reviewers and editors for their comments and suggestions.

Funding Information

This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC grant no. 41672253) and the China Geological Survey Project (no. DD20160242).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yongping Liang
    • 1
  • Xubo Gao
    • 2
  • Chunhong Zhao
    • 1
  • Chunlei Tang
    • 1
  • Haoyong Shen
    • 1
  • Zhiheng Wang
    • 1
  • Yanxin Wang
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Karst GeologyChinese Academy of Geological SciencesGuilinChina
  2. 2.China University of GeosciencesWuhanChina

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