Granular Matter

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 469–482 | Cite as

Three dimensional fabric evolution of sheared sand

Original Paper


Granular particles undergo translation and rolling when they are sheared. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) experimental assessment of fabric evolution of sheared sand at the particle level. F-75 Ottawa sand specimen was tested under an axisymmetric triaxial loading condition. It measured 9.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. The quantitative evaluation was conducted by analyzing 3D high-resolution x-ray synchrotron micro-tomography images of the specimen at eight axial strain levels. The analyses included visualization of particle translation and rotation, and quantification of fabric orientation as shearing continued. Representative individual particles were successfully tracked and visualized to assess the mode of interaction between them. This paper discusses fabric evolution and compares the evolution of particles within and outside the shear band as shearing continues. Changes in particle orientation distributions are presented using fabric histograms and fabric tensor.


Sand Particles Fabric Synchrotron micro-tomography 


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Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil and Resource EngineeringThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

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