A whole-ecosystem experiment in Lake 227 (L227) at the Experimental Lakes Area, ongoing since 1969, examined the roles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in controlling eutrophication. During 2011, we conducted a series of sub-experiments and more intensive monitoring to improve estimates of N fixation and its ability to meet algal growth demands in the decades following the cessation of artificial N loading, while maintaining long-term high artificial P loading. Stoichiometric nutrient ratios indicated both moderate N and P limitation of the phytoplankton during spring, preceding a shift in phytoplankton community structure toward dominance by N fixing cyanobacteria. During bloom development, and for the remainder of the stratified period, stoichiometric nutrient ratios indicated moderate to strong P limitation. N fixation rates, corrected using 15N2 methods, increased 2× after 1990, when N loading ceased. Ambient dissolved inorganic nitrogen prior to the bloom represented less than 3% of N demands of the phytoplankton. N fixation accounted for between 69–86% of total N loading to the epilimnion during the period of rapid bloom development, and 72–86% of total N loading during the May–October period. Phytoplankton biomass did not decline in L227 during the 40 years since artificial N loading was reduced, or the nearly 25 years since artificial N loads ceased entirely (1990–2013), and remained approximately 20× higher than four nearby reference lakes. These results suggest that despite constraints on biological N fixation, it retains a large capacity to offset potential N loading reductions in freshwaters.
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Funding for this research was provided by: the Fisheries Research Board of Canada to DWS; the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans to DWS, MJP, DLF, and SNH; the Provinces of Ontario and Manitoba; and the IISD Experimental Lakes Area Inc. to MJP and SNH during different periods of the long-term experiment. Stable isotope analysis was provided by the University of Waterloo Environmental Isotope Laboratory (UW-EIL). We thank the numerous individuals involved in field sampling and water chemistry analysis.
SNH conducted 2011 experiments, analyzed data, and wrote the manuscript; MJP, REH, DWS conceived and undertook the long-term study and analyzed the long-term data; DLF analyzed algal taxonomy and heterocyst abundance: JJV and SNH conducted and analyzed the 15N2 experiment.
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Higgins, S.N., Paterson, M.J., Hecky, R.E. et al. Biological Nitrogen Fixation Prevents the Response of a Eutrophic Lake to Reduced Loading of Nitrogen: Evidence from a 46-Year Whole-Lake Experiment. Ecosystems 21, 1088–1100 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-017-0204-2
- nutrient limitation
- lake management
- whole-lake experiment