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Brain Tumor Pathology

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 1–7 | Cite as

Molecular mechanisms involved in gliomagenesis

Review Article

Abstract

The application of molecular parameters in the World Health Organization classification of central nervous system tumors has advanced remarkably in this field. Large-scale genomic DNA analyses, including gene expression profiling, genome-wide association studies, and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis, have revealed differences between tumors with the same pathological features. Because mutated genes and their signaling pathways can be targets for therapy, categorizing tumors by molecular parameters facilitates the selection of optimal therapeutic methods. Many genes are either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, and many of them are also involved in normal development, such as neural stem cell maintenance and neural differentiation. Moreover, genetic engineering has enabled the generation of tumors that phenocopy human tumors in mice. Here, I will discuss key molecular parameters, mechanisms of neural differentiation, isocitrate dehydrogenases, 1p36/19q13, and p53 in gliomagenesis. Because future therapeutic methods will be determined by the molecular mechanisms of tumors, identification of new parameters is still needed for further classification of glioma.

Keywords

Glial development Glioma IDHs 1p36/19q13 P53 

Notes

Acknowledgements

T.K. was supported, in part, by a research program of the Project for Development of Innovative Research on Cancer Therapeutics (P-DIRECT), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

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Copyright information

© The Japan Society of Brain Tumor Pathology 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Stem Cell Biology, Institute for Genetic MedicineHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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