Optimization of process of the honeycomb-like structure formation by the regime of reversing current (RC) in the second range

Abstract

Formation of the honeycomb-like electrodes of copper by the regime of reversing current (RC) in the second range has been investigated. Morphological and structural characteristics of this electrode type obtained by various parameters of RC regimes were examined by the techniques of scanning electron and optical microscopies, while the amount of hydrogen produced during electrodeposition process was quantified by determination of the average current efficiency for hydrogen evolution reaction. To optimize the process of formation of the honeycomb-like electrodes, the following parameters of square wave RC regimes were analyzed: the cathodic current density, the same anodic to cathodic time ratios but various durations of the cathodic and the anodic pulses, and the various values of the anodic to cathodic time ratios. The minimal amount of hydrogen spent for formation of the honeycomb-like electrodes with maximal number of holes formed from detached hydrogen bubbles is obtained with the anodic to cathodic time ratio of 0.50 and duration of the cathodic and anodic pulses of 2 and 1 s, respectively. To explain formation of the honeycomb-like electrodes of optimal morphological and structural characteristics, the upgraded mathematical model defining the RC regime in the second range was proposed and discussed.

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Funding

This work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Grant No. 451-03-68/2020-14/200026).

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Correspondence to Nebojša D. Nikolić.

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Nikolić, N.D., Živković, P.M., Elezović, N. et al. Optimization of process of the honeycomb-like structure formation by the regime of reversing current (RC) in the second range. J Solid State Electrochem 24, 1615–1624 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-020-04658-3

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Keywords

  • Electrodeposition
  • Reversing current (RC) regime
  • Copper
  • The honeycomb-like structure
  • Morphology
  • Hydrogen