Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 22, Issue 7, pp 2039–2048 | Cite as

Electrocatalytic oxidation of salicylic acid at a carbon paste electrode impregnated with cerium-doped zirconium oxide nanoparticles as a new sensing approach for salicylic acid determination

  • Taher Alizadeh
  • Sahar Nayeri
Original Paper


Cerium-doped zirconium oxide (Ce/ZrO2) was introduced as a highly efficient electrocatalyst for electrooxidation of salicylic acid (SA). The electrocatalyst material was synthesized via co-precipitation of cerium and zirconium ions, and then the resulting solid was heat-treated at high temperature to create crystallized cerium-doped zirconium oxide nanoparticles. The obtained material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The Ce/ZrO2-modified carbon paste electrode (Ce/ZrO2-CPE) exhibited a distinct oxidative peak for SA, whereas no signal was observed for SA at unmodified carbon paste electrode at the same experimental conditions. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were applied to investigate the electrocatalytic performance of the electrode and SA electrooxidation mechanism. Square wave voltammetry was used to capture the analytical signal of SA. The electrode composition was optimized to increase the SA signal. Using the optimized electrode, it became possible to determine SA in the concentration range of 5.0–1000.0 μM with detection limit of 1.1 μM (3Sb/m). The electrode showed very high sensitivity of 1013.5 μA mM−1 cm−2 which is remarkably better than the previously reported SA sensors. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of SA in human serum, milk, and pharmaceutical samples.


Cerium-doped Zirconium oxide nanoparticles Carbon paste Salicylic acid Electrocatalyst 

Supplementary material

10008_2018_3907_MOESM1_ESM.docx (32 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 31 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University College of ScienceUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Mohaghegh ArdabiliArdabilIran

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