Degradation of paracetamol in a bubble column reactor with ozone generated in electrolyte-free water using a solid polymer electrolyte filter-press electrochemical reactor
- 222 Downloads
A porous anode composed of β-PbO2 was electrochemically deposited onto a carbon cloth substrate (e.g., CC/β-PbO2) aiming for the electrochemical ozone production (EOP) in electrolyte-free water using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) filter-press reactor. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed the presence of a three-dimensional oxide structure necessary to obtain a fluid-permeable anode. X-ray analysis showed the predominance of the β-PbO2 phase. The maximum current efficiency for the EOP was 9.5% with an ozone production rate of 1.40 g h−1. Using a constant ozone production rate of 0.5 g h−1, the oxidative degradation of paracetamol (PCT) dissolved in water was accomplished as a function of the PCT concentration (20, 30, and 50 mg L−1) and the pH (acid, natural (without adjustment), and alkaline). The UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis showed that the degradation process is more pronounced in alkaline media with a strong reduction in the electrical energy per order (E EO). A reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 80% was observed. A linear correlation between data referring to COD and HPLC measurements with the UV absorbance measured at 243 nm (UV243) was verified indicating that these different techniques can be complementary to each other. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of the ozonation by-products revealed that the oxidation of PCT occurred through the rupture of the aromatic ring. The major part of phenol’s ring was oxidized to CO3 2− while no reaction occurs in the acetamide group of paracetamol during the ozonation reaction.
KeywordsPorous lead dioxide layer SPE filter-press reactor Electrochemical ozone production Oxidative degradation of paracetamol Bubble column reactor NMR characterization
L.M. Da Silva wishes to thank the “Fundação ao Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais—FAPEMIG” (Projects CEX-APQ-1181-14 and CEX-112-10), “Secretaria de Estado de Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior de Minas Gerais - SECTES/MG” (Support for the LMMA Laboratory), and “Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico—CNPq” (PQ-2 grant). This work is a collaborative research project of members of the “Rede Mineira de Química” (RQ-MG) supported by FAPEMIG (Project: CEX - RED-00010-14).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Da Silva LM, Franco DV, Gonçalves IC, De Sousa LG (2009) In: Gertsen N, Sonderby L (ed) Water purification. Nova Science, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 2.Correia B, Freitas R, Figueira E, Soares AMVM, Nunes B (2016) Oxidative effects of the pharmaceutical drug paracetamol on the edible clam Ruditapes philippinarum under different salinities. Comp Biochem Physiol Part C: Toxicol Pharmacol 179:116–124Google Scholar
- 16.Sang-Do H, Kim JD, Myung KS, Rana RK, Singh KC (2006) Electro-chemical production of ozone using water electrolysis cell of solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). Indian J Chem Technol 13:156–161Google Scholar
- 18.Trasatti S (1981) Electrodes of conductive metallic oxides. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- 21.Andrade LS, Ruotolo LAM, Rocha-Filho RC, Bocchi N, Biaggio SR, Iniesta J, García-Garcia V, Montiel V (2007) On the performance of Fe and Fe, F doped Ti–Pt/PbO2 electrodes in the electrooxidation of the blue reactive 19 dye in simulated textile wastewater. Chemosphere 66:2035–2043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.Amadelli R, Velichenko AB (2001) Lead dioxide electrodes for high potential anodic processes. J Serb Chem Soc 66:835–845Google Scholar
- 31.Rice EW et al. (ed), (2012) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 22 ed. American Public Health Association, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 32.Resende JM, Moraes CM, Prates MV, Cesar A, Almeida FCL, Mundim N, Valente AP, Bemquerer MP, Piló-Veloso D, Bechinger B (2008) Solution NMR structures of the antimicrobial peptides phylloseptin-1,-2, and-3 and biological activity: the role of charges and hydrogen bonding interactions in stabilizing helix conformations. Peptides 29:1633–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Mikrajuddin A, Khairurrijal K (2008) Derivation of Scherrer relation using an approach in basic physics course. Jurnal Nanosains & Nanoteknologi 1:28–32Google Scholar
- 43.Da Silva LM, Boodts JFC, De Faria LA (2001) Oxygen evolution at RuO2(x)+Co3O4(1-x) electrodes from acid solution. Electrochim Acta 46:1369–1375Google Scholar
- 45.Gileadi E (2011) Physical electrochemistry: fundamentals, techniques and applications. Wiley-VCH, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
- 52.Franco DV, Jardim WF, Boodts JFC, Da Silva LM (2008) Electrochemical ozone production as an environmentally friendly technology for water treatment. Clean 36:34–44Google Scholar
- 57.Von Sperling M (1996) Introdução à qualidade das águas e ao tratamento de esgotos. Editora UFMG, Belo HorizonteGoogle Scholar