Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry

, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 1483–1493 | Cite as

Electrochemical and associated techniques for the study of the inclusion complexes of thymol and β-cyclodextrin and its interaction with DNA

  • Katherine Lozano
  • Fabricia da Rocha Ferreira
  • Emanuella G. da Silva
  • Renata Costa dos Santos
  • Marilia O. F. Goulart
  • Samuel T. Souza
  • Eduardo J. S. Fonseca
  • Claudia Yañez
  • Paulina Sierra-Rosales
  • Fabiane Caxico de Abreu
Original Paper


Thymol, a potent agent for microbial, fungal, and bacterial disease, has low aqueous solubility and it is genotoxic, i.e., is capable of damaging deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This possible problem of DNA toxicity needs to be solved to allow the use of different doses of thymol. This study characterized the inclusion compound containing thymol and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) by measuring the interaction between these two components and the ability of thymol to bind DNA in its free and β-CD complexed form. The encapsulation approach using β-CD is particularly useful when controlled target release is desired, and a compound is insoluble, unstable, or genotoxic. The interaction between thymol and DNA has been studied using electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The characterization of the inclusion complex of thymol and β-CD was analyzed by UV-vis spectrophotometry, cyclic voltammetry, and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). Based on the free β-CD by spectrophotometry method, the association constant of thymol with the β-CD was estimated to be 2.8 × 104 L mol−1. The AFM images revealed that in the presence of small concentrations of thymol, the dsDNA molecules appeared less knotted and bent on the mica surface, showing significant damage to DNA. The SECM and voltammetry results both demonstrated that the interaction of thymol-β-CD complex was smaller than the free compound showing that the encapsulation process may be an advantage leading to a reduction of toxic effects and increase of the bioavailability of the drug.


Thymol β-Cyclodextrin AFM SECM EQCM DPV 



The authors are grateful to Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPEAL, and Organization of American States (OAS) for financial support.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katherine Lozano
    • 1
  • Fabricia da Rocha Ferreira
    • 1
  • Emanuella G. da Silva
    • 1
  • Renata Costa dos Santos
    • 1
  • Marilia O. F. Goulart
    • 1
  • Samuel T. Souza
    • 2
  • Eduardo J. S. Fonseca
    • 2
  • Claudia Yañez
    • 3
  • Paulina Sierra-Rosales
    • 4
  • Fabiane Caxico de Abreu
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de Química e BiotecnologiaUniversidade Federal de AlagoasMaceióBrazil
  2. 2.Grupo de Óptica e Nanoscopia (GON), Instituto de FísicaUniversidade Federal de AlagoasMaceióBrazil
  3. 3.Centro de Investigación de los Procesos Redox (CiPRex), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y FarmacéuticasUniversidad de ChileSantiagoChile
  4. 4.Programa Institucional de Fomento a la Investigación, Desarrollo e InnovaciónUniversidad Tecnológica MetropolitanaSantiagoChile

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