Carbon paste electrode modified with Fe3O4 nanoparticles and BMI.PF6 ionic liquid for determination of estrone by square-wave voltammetry
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A carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NP) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (IL BMI.PF6) was employed for the electroanalytical determination of estrone (E1) by square-wave voltammetry (SWV). At the modified electrode, cyclic voltammograms of E1 in B–R buffer (pH 12.0) showed an adsorption-controlled irreversible oxidation peak at around +0.365 V. The anodic current increased by a factor of five times and the peak potential shifted 65 mV to less positive values compared with the unmodified CPE. Under optimized conditions, the calibration curve obtained showed two linear ranges: from 4.0 to 9.0 μmol L−1 and from 9.0 to 100.0 μmol L−1. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) attained were 0.47 and 4.0 μmol L−1, respectively. The proposed modified electrode was applied to the determination of E1 in pork meat samples. Data provided by the proposed modified electrode were compared with data obtained by UV–vis spectroscopy. The outstanding performance of the electrochemical device indicates that Fe3O4 NP and the IL BMI.PF6 are promising materials for the preparation of chemically modified electrodes for the determination of E1.
KeywordsCarbon paste electrode Fe3O4 nanoparticles Ionic liquid Estrone Pork meat Square-wave voltammetry
The authors are grateful to the Brazilian government agencies CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico), CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior), and FAPESC (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa e Inovação do Estado de Santa Catarina) for the scholarship and financial support. We are also in debt with Central Laboratory of Electron Microscopy of Federal University of Santa Catarina (Florianópolis/SC, Brazil) due to the surface analyses and with LacBio (Laboratório de Catálise Biomimética) for providing the IL BMI.PF6.
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